Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
January 2019 Vol. 8(1): pp. 024-029
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Environmental Effects of Urban Livestock Keeping: Which Types of Livestock Pose more Serious Problems?

Rehema T. Mdendemi1, Susan R. Gwelema,2 Tiberio Mdendemi3 and Basil Msuha4

1. President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government, P.O. Box 1923, Dodoma, Tanzania

2.  Open University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

3. Institute of Rural Development Planning, P.O. Box 138 Dodoma, Tanzania.

4. President’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government, P.O. Box 1923, Dodoma, Tanzania

*Corresponding Author's Email:

Accepted 27 December, 2018



Urban livestock keeping has remained one of the key urban livelihoods in spite of the negative environmental consequences it causes to urban dwellers. Livestock cause waste heaps, noise, bad odour, dust, destruction of infrastructure and health hazards often leading to conflict. The idea that certain types of livestock cause more serious environmental consequences than others is not straightforward. A study was conducted in two municipalities of Dodoma and Morogoro, examining the effects of livestock keeping on the environment and on the community. Primary data were collected at household level through interviews and focused group discussion. Secondary data were collected through documentary review on environmental pollution and conflict due urban livestock keeping which were obtained from Municipal Offices, libraries and internet. Using a sample of 298 respondents, The chi-square test of association between keeping livestock and environmental pollution and social conflict  rejected the null hypothesis of independence at 5% level of significance on almost all pollution variables for different types of livestock, implying that keeping livestock could result into noise, heaps of waste, odour, dust, plant destruction and social conflict. The only areas where the Chi-square test failed to reject null hypothesis of independence were between keeping sheep and noise, odour, and social conflict (at P ≥ 0.05 ); and between poultry and noise  (P ≥ 0.05) and between all types of livestock and dust (at P ≥ 0.05 );  . The conclusion was that environmental effects of urban livestock keeping are demonstrated by all types of livestock at varying degrees. Livestock keeping of any type in urban areas has, therefore, negative environmental and health consequences when there is weak enforcement of relevant bylaws.

Keywords: Urban livestock keeping, Environmental consequences, Livestock types, Conflict.







Alam MN, Kabir AKMA, Sakib MN, Salahuddin M, Azad MAK (2016). Impact of livestock rearing practices on public health and environmental issues in selected municipality areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 45, Issue 1, pp 44-51.

Cochran WG (1977).  Sampling Techniques (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Covarrubias K, Nsiima L, Zezza A (2012). Livestock and Livelihoods in Rural Tanzania: A descriptive analysis of the 2009 National Panel Survey. Rome: FAO

Fuller R (2003). Livestock and the Livelihoods of the Poor: A Background Document research paper.. Livestock Development Group, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading. Berkshire, UK.

Gaynor A (2007). Animals Agendas: Conflict over Productive Animals. In Twentieth- Century Australian Cities. Society and Animals, 15(1), 29 - 42.

Guang QH, Yue J, Pan LS, Qing CY (2013). Environmental pollution of livestock and the effectiveness of different management policies in China. China Environmental Science, 33(12), 2268 – 2273

Mlozi MRS, Lupala A, Chenyambuga SW, Liwenga E,  Msogoya T (2012).  Knowledge Assessment on the Effects of Climatic Change due to Keeping Livestock in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas of Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. International NGO Journal, 8(1), 1 – 12.

Mvena ZSK (1999). The Past, Present and Future of Urban Agriculture in Tanzania. Journal  of Agricultural Economics and Development, 3(1), 71 – 78. Tanzania.

Schiere H, Van der H (2001). Livestock keeping in Urban Areas; A review of Traditional technologies based on literature and field Experiences. Retrieved on 10th June 2015 from: (  

Thys E, Schiere H, Van Huylenbloeck G, Mfoukou-Ntsakala A, Oueadrago M, Greerts S (2006). Three Approaches for the Integrated Assessment of Urban Household Livestock Production Systems; Cases from Sub-Saharan Africa. Outlook on Agriculture, 35(1), 7 – 18






Related Articles

Abhimanyu Kumar and Mohd Shadab
The case study of scheduled caste in western Uttar – Pradesh (Meerut 2005-2010), India
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. March 2012 Vol: 1(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (50 KB)
Original Research Article
Elías David Caisa Yucailla, María Dolores Guamán Guevara, Rodrigo Fernando Miranda López, Geovanny Fabricio Ríos Lara, Gabriel Arturo Pazmiño Solys and Jorge Iván Carrillo Hernandez
Coaching and work performance in the cooperative sector of the province of Tungurahua - Ecuador
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. June 2017 Vol: 6(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (135 KB)
Kieran E Uchehara
The Impact of Ahmet Davutoglus New Diplomacy on Africa The Case of Mali and Somalia to Somaliland
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. February 2016 Vol: 5(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (144 KB)
Systematic Review
Ms. Elham Qawariri
Corporate Governance Practices in Banking and Insurance: A Comparative Study of Companies Listed on Tadawul Stock Exchange.
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. January 2019 Vol: 1(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (183 KB)
Original Research Articles
Mohamed Awadh Altrais and Amir Mohamed Abou Elnaga
An Evaluation of Employees Perception toward the Causes Effects and Techniques of Conflict Management An applied study for the Employees Working at Ministry of Civil Service at Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. October 2017 Vol: 6(6): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (950 KB)
Araya Mebrahtu Teka
Does Participation Of Women On Micro And Small Scale Enterprises Address Poverty In Northern Ethiopia Evidences From Adwa Aksum And Shire Towns
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. May 2014 Vol: 3(5): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (0 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Rehema T. Mdendemi on Google Scholar
Rehema T. Mdendemi on Pubmed
Susan R. Gwelema on Google Scholar
Susan R. Gwelema on Pubmed
Tiberio Mdendemi on Google Scholar
Tiberio Mdendemi on Pubmed
Basil Msuha on Google Scholar
Basil Msuha on Pubmed


Viewed 1300
Printed 113
Downloaded 354
Powered By iPortal Works