Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
January 2019 Vol. 8(1): pp. 031-039
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Systematic Review 

The Characteristics of Gullies Formed on two Geological Sediments: a Comparison

Louis A. Oparaku

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author's Email: alimonu2013@gmail.com

Accepted 26 December, 2018

 

Abstract

A comparison of the characteristics of gullies formed on two geological sediments of varying vulnerability to erosion was the subject of this study. The geological sediments were the Ajalli sandstones (AS) and the Upper Coal Measures (UCM) of the North Central Nigeria. Standard procedures were used to survey the gullies and measure their dimensions. Thereafter, the descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results show that the number of gullies on the more erodible AS (740) is greater than that of the UCM (101).  The cross sectional shape of the gullies on the AS is trapezoidal, while those on the UCM are U-shaped. The mean size of the gullies on the AS (mean length L=452.27m, mean average depth,D=6.49m, and mean average width W=7.95m) is greater than that of the UCM(mean L=361.66m, mean average depth D=5.96m, and mean average width W=6.23m). Therefore, the AS is more degraded and more prone to degradation than the UCM formation. With a W/D ratio of 1.46, the surface soils on the AS are more eroded than the sub soils; and this means that the surface configurations of gullies formed on the AS conform to that of a wavy stream channel(W/D>1). On the other hand, with a mean W/D ratio of 0.91 on the UCM, the indication is that more sub soils are being eroded than the surface soils; and the surface configurations of gullies formed on this formation conform to that of a normal gully channel (W/D<1). Generally, the percentage contribution (PC=r2x100) values on the UCM are higher than the values on the AS (r2=coefficient of determination). Higher PC values on the UCM being greater than those on the AS suggests that the reliability of intra-gully (within a gully) predictability of pairs of gully dimensions increases with an increase in the resistance of the sediments to erosion. The differences in the characteristics of gullies formed on the two geological sediments are attributable to their varying inherent erodibility characteristics. Land use on the AS formation should consider the fragility of the sediments.

Keywords: Characteristics, geological sediments, comparison, gully dimensions, and predictability.

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

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