Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
January 2019 Vol. 8(1): pp. 031-039
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals


Systematic Review 

The Characteristics of Gullies Formed on two Geological Sediments: a Comparison

Louis A. Oparaku

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author's Email:

Accepted 26 December, 2018



A comparison of the characteristics of gullies formed on two geological sediments of varying vulnerability to erosion was the subject of this study. The geological sediments were the Ajalli sandstones (AS) and the Upper Coal Measures (UCM) of the North Central Nigeria. Standard procedures were used to survey the gullies and measure their dimensions. Thereafter, the descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to analyse the data. Results show that the number of gullies on the more erodible AS (740) is greater than that of the UCM (101).  The cross sectional shape of the gullies on the AS is trapezoidal, while those on the UCM are U-shaped. The mean size of the gullies on the AS (mean length L=452.27m, mean average depth,D=6.49m, and mean average width W=7.95m) is greater than that of the UCM(mean L=361.66m, mean average depth D=5.96m, and mean average width W=6.23m). Therefore, the AS is more degraded and more prone to degradation than the UCM formation. With a W/D ratio of 1.46, the surface soils on the AS are more eroded than the sub soils; and this means that the surface configurations of gullies formed on the AS conform to that of a wavy stream channel(W/D>1). On the other hand, with a mean W/D ratio of 0.91 on the UCM, the indication is that more sub soils are being eroded than the surface soils; and the surface configurations of gullies formed on this formation conform to that of a normal gully channel (W/D<1). Generally, the percentage contribution (PC=r2x100) values on the UCM are higher than the values on the AS (r2=coefficient of determination). Higher PC values on the UCM being greater than those on the AS suggests that the reliability of intra-gully (within a gully) predictability of pairs of gully dimensions increases with an increase in the resistance of the sediments to erosion. The differences in the characteristics of gullies formed on the two geological sediments are attributable to their varying inherent erodibility characteristics. Land use on the AS formation should consider the fragility of the sediments.

Keywords: Characteristics, geological sediments, comparison, gully dimensions, and predictability.







Brice JC (1966). Erosion and sedimentation in the loessian-mantled Great Plains, Madison Creek drainage basin, Nebraska. Geological Survey Professional Paper. 2555-3391.

Ebisemiju FS (1989). A morphometric approach to gully analysis. Z. Geomorphologie. 33(3): 307-322.

ECAN (1982). Gully Erosion Control Measures for Ankpa Town. Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja, Nigeria.

Evans R (1980). Mechanics of water erosion and their spatial and temporal controls: An empirical view point, In: M. J. Kirkby and R.P.C. Morgan (eds). Soil Erosion. London, John Wiley & sons Ltd: 109 – 128.

Horton RE (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: A hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 56: 275-370.

Iorkua AS (1999). A Gully in the North Bank Area of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. An unpublished thesis  submitted to the University of  Ibadan, Nigeria.

James LAJ, Watson DG, Hansen WF (2006).  Using LDAR data to map gullies and headwater streams under forest canopy: South Carolina, USA, Catena. 10:101.

Lal R (1990).  Soil Erosion in the Tropics: Principles and Management. McGraw-Hill. 588p.

Michael AM, Ojha TP (2013). Principles of Agricultural Engineering. Vol. II. Jain Brothers, New Delhi, India. Vol. II, 1124p.

Morgan RPC (2005).  Soil Erosion and conservation 3rd ed. Blackwell Publ. Ltd, USA.

Nwajide CS, Hoque M (1979). Gullying processes in southeastern Nigeria. The Nigerian Field. XLIV2.

O’Green AT, Elkins R, Lewis D (2006). Erodibility of agricultural soils with examples in Lake and Mendacian Countries. ANR Publications 8194p.

Oparaku LA (2015). Gully Erosion on the Idah-Ankpa Plateau of the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. An Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Oparaku LA, Aho IM, Iwar RT (2016).  Relative vulnerability to gully erosion of three geological sediments: A texture-based assessment. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 6(2), 7 – 16.

Oparaku LA, Iorkua SA, Joel M (2014).  Gully erosion on the Idah-Ankpa Plateau of the Anambra Basin, Nigeria: Some field observations. In: Gbadegesin, A. S.; Eze, B.E., Orimoogunje, O. O. T., and Fashae, O. A. (eds) Frontiers in Environmental Research and Sustainable Environment in the 21st Century. University of Ibadan Press Publishing House, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Oparaku LA, Iwar RT (2018).  Relationship between average gully depths and widths on geological sediments underlying the Idah-Ankpa Pleateau of the North Central Nigeria.  Journal of the International Soil and Water Conservation Research (Elsevier). 6:43 – 50.

Oparaku LA, Ogbeh GO  (2018).  Comparing gully length and average gully width relationships on two geological sediments of varying vulnerability to erosion in the North Central Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 37, No. 2: 554 – 561.

Preez JE, Barber W (1965). The distribution and chemical quality of ground water in Northern Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria. Bulletin 36.

Singh MJ, Khera KL (2008).  Soil erodibility indices under different land uses in Lower Shiwaliks. Tropical Ecology 49(2):113 – 119.

Soufi M (2004).  Morpho-climatic characteristics of gullies in Fars Province, Southwest Iran. Report of Research Plan No. 83/1153, Research Institute for Soil Conservation and Watershed Management 133p.

Udosen CE (1991). A morphometric analysis of gullies in Obotme Area of AkwaIbom State. An unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Wischmeier WH, Mannering JV (1969). Relation of Soil properties to its erodibility. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. 33(1) 131 – 137.







Related Articles

Original Research Articles
Olusola AO, Ekun OE, David TI, Olorunfemi OE and Oyewale MB
Moringa oleifera Seed Protein Hydrolysates: Kinetics of α-amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Potentials
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. November 2018 Vol: 7(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (550 KB)
Awe JAA and Saimeh H
Reducing the incidence of non-attendance at general surgical out-patient clinic
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. September 2013 Vol: 2(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (159 KB)
Mohammad Ali Fatemi, Raziye Ganjali and Zeinab Kafi
EFL Teachers’ Personality Type and Their Effectiveness in Teaching: investigating the relationship
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. November 2015 Vol: 4(10): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (166 KB)
Alamin Musa Salih, Caroline Edward Ayad and Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla
Characterization of Occipital Condyles in Sudanese using Computerized Tomography
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. December 2014 Vol: 3(12): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (102 KB)
Alfonso De Luna-Jiménez, José Luis Arredondo-Figuero, Jorge Ramón Rocha-Ruiz and José de Jesús Luna-Ruiz
Effect of Compost and Bovine Dry Manure on Soil Chemical Characteristics and Production of iceberg Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. September 2015 Vol: 4(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (198 KB)
Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez, Mayra Diaz-Ramirez, Alan Javier Hernández-Álvarez, Felipe García-Ochoa, Adriana Villanueva-Carvajal, Liliana León-López, Alejandra L. San Martín-Azocar
Bio surfactants produced by enterobacterial
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. October 2015 Vol: 4(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (244 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Louis A. Oparaku on Google Scholar
Louis A. Oparaku on Pubmed


Viewed 121
Printed 10
Downloaded 46
Powered By iPortal Works