Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
February 2018 Vol. 7(2): pp. 053-063
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Estimation of antioxidant activity in natural rubber (H.brasiliensis) using TPC, FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS, DPPH, ORAC assays, individual phenolic and individual flavonoid quantity 

Suwimon Siriwonga,b*, Adisai Rungvichaniwatb, Pairote Klinpituksab, Khalid Hamid Musac and Amina Abdullahc 


aCollege of Innovation and Management, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkla, 90000, Thailand

bDepartment of Rubber Technology and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani campus, Pattani, 94000, Thailand

cSchool of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author's Email:

Accepted 18 February, 2018



Natural antioxidant in natural rubber is very useful to react with oxygen or ozone to protect natural rubber from undesirable chemical oxidations. There are various methods used to determine the quantity of antioxidant in food that may be applied to estimate natural antioxidant in natural rubber. The main objective of the present work is to study the effects of different extracted solvents (mixtures in the volume ratio of 4:1 of chloroform:acetone, chloroform:methanol, cyclohexane:acetone and cyclohexane:methanol) on the detected quantity of antioxidant in three grades of natural rubber; Air dry sheet (ADS), Ribbed smoked sheet No.3 (RSS3) and Standard thai rubber 20 (STR20). Various methods of the estimation of antioxidant in natural rubber were also investigated by using total phenolic content (TPC) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay, 2,2¢-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay,  1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), individual phenolic and individual flavonoid. It was found that the mixture of cyclohexane:methanol showed the highest antioxidant activity verified by TPC, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH and ORAC. Individual phenolic and flavonoid exhibited quite different among solvent types, phenolic types and flavonoid types. Moreover, almost all of the results showed that ADS exhibited lower antoxidant activity than that of STR20 and RSS3. 

Keywords: antioxidant, flavonoid, natural rubber, phenolic.





Apak R, Fuclu K, Ozyurek M, Karademir S (2004). Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine:  CUPRAC method. J Agric Food Chem 52: 7970-7981.

Arnao MB, Cano A, Acosta M (2001). The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity. Food Chem 73: 239-244.

Babu D, Gurumurthy P, Borra K, Cherian KM (2013). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of triphala determined by using different in vitro models. J Med Plants Res 7: 2898-2905.  

Blackley DC (1997). Natural latices. Polymer Latices : Science and Technology Volume 2, Chapman & Hall, London: 1-136.

Dasgupta A, Klein K (2014). Chapter 2 - Methods for Measuring Oxidative Stress in the Laboratory. Antioxidants in Food, Vitamins and Supplements, Elsevier, San Diego: 19-40.

Elias RJ, Kellerby SS, Decker E (2008). Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48: 430-441.

Gulcin I, Topal F, Sarikaya SBO, Bursal E, Bilsel G, Goren AC (2011). Polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.). Rec Nat Prod 5: 158-175.

Hiller LA, Herber RH (1960). Principles of Chemistry, McGraw-Hill.

Hung PV, Nhi NNY (2012). Nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of several edible mushrooms grown in the Southern Vietnam. Int Food Res J 19: 611-615.

Hayat K, Hussain S, Abbas S, Farooq U, Ding B, Xia S, Jia C, Zhang X, Xia W (2009). Optimized microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic acids from citrus mandarin peels and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro. Sep Purif Technol 70: 63-70.

Madsa-I Y, Cheewasedtham W (2011). Contents of main constituents causing dark color in heavea brasiliensis latex. The 22nd National Graduate Research Conference, 2011, Thailand: 7-9.

Maizura M, Aminah A, Wan Aida WM (2011). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of kesum (Polygonum minus), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract. Int Food Res J 18: 529-534.

Maura S, Singh D (2010). Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in Adhatoda vasica nees extracts. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2: 2403-2406.

Musa KH, Abdullah A, Jusoh K, Subramaniam V (2011). et al. Antioxidant activity of pink-flesh guava ( Psidium guajava L.): Effect of extraction techniques and solvents. Food Anal Method 4: 100-107.

Musa KH, Abdullah A, Subramaniam V (2015). Flavonoid profile and antioxidant activity of pink guava. Science Asia 41: 149-154.

Max JJ, Chapados C (2005). Infrared spectroscopy of acetone-methanol liquid mixtures: Hydrogen bond network. J Chem Phys 122.

Nenadis N, Tsimidou M (2002). Observations on the estimation of scavenging activity of phenolic compounds using rapid 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) tests. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79: 1191-1195.

Olson OE, Nelson DL, Emerick RJ (1963). Nitrate reduction and carotene stability, effect of nitrate and some of its reduction products on carotene stability. J Agric Food Chem 11: 140-143.

Özyürek M, Bener M, Guclu KG, Donmez AA, Suzgec-Selcuk S, Pirildar SP, Mericli AH, Apak R (2011). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Crataegus Species collected from different regions of Turkey. Rec Nat Prod 6: 263-277.

Prakash A (2001). Antioxidant activity. Medallion laboratoies, Analytical Progress 19.

Prior RL, Cao G, Martin A, Sofic E, McEwen J, O'Brien C, Lischner N, Ehlenfeldt M, Kalt W, Krewer G, Mainland CM (1998). Antioxidant capacity as influenced by total phenolic and anthocyanin content, maturity, and variety of Vaccinium Species. J Agr Food Chem 46: 2686-2693.

Sakdapipanich J, Insom K, Phupewkeaw N (2007). Composition of color substances of hevea brasiliensis natural rubber. Rubber Chem Technol 80: 212-230.

Wititsuwannakul D, Chareonthiphakorn N, Pace M, Wititsuwannakul R (2002). Polyphenol oxidases from latex of Hevea brasiliensis: purification and characterization. Phytochemistry 61: 115-121.

Xu BJ, Chang SK (2007). A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. J Food Sci 72: 159-166.

Yim HS, Chye FY, Koo SM, Matanjun P, How SE, Ho CW (2012). Optimization of extraction time and temperature for antioxidant activity of edible wild mushroom, Pleurotus porrigens. Food Bioprod Process 90: 235-242.

Zulkifli KS, Abdullah N, Abdullah A, Aziman N, Kamarudin WSSW (2012). Bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of selected fruit peels. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environment 49: 66-70.

Related Articles

Original Research Articles
Valéria Baccarin Ianiski, Ligia Beatriz Bento Franz, Juliana Schneider, Matias Nunes Frizzo and Eliane Roseli Winkelmann
Oxidative stress and power in patients post - kidney transplantation: a cross study
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. October 2015 Vol: 4(10): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (157 KB)
Hussein HK, Elnaggar MH and Al-Zahrani NK
Antioxidant role of folic acid against reproductive toxicity of cyhalothrin in male mice
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. July 2012 Vol: 1(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (714 KB)
Ahmed Y Nassar, Ahmed M Ali, Mona A El-Baz, Heba M Saad Eldien, Yousif S Mohamed, Fathy F Abdel Latif, Abdel Haleem M Hussein and Muammar Y Nassar
Copper (I)-Nicotinate Complex Promoted the Synthesis of Aflatoxin M1 and Q1 More Efficiently than Butylated hydroxytoluene in Afaltoxicosed Rats
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. October 2014 Vol: 3(10): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (399 KB)
Mahmoud Mohamed Elgari
Hematological Changes Induced by Heavy Cigarette Smoking
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. December 2017 Vol: 6(12): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (83 KB)
Millán-Guerrero RO, García-Ramírez AL, Trujillo-Hernández B, Caballero-Hoyos R, González–Pérez O, Isais-Millan S and Trujillo-Magallon Erick
Efficacy of α-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. A Randomized, Double-Blind Study
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. December 2018 Vol: 7(10): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (172 KB)
Boško Petković, Snježana Matoš, Nebojša Gorgi, Zoran Kukrić.
Analysis of antioxidant activity of different species of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. May 2014 Vol: 3(5): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (291 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Suwimon Siriwong on Google Scholar
Suwimon Siriwong on Pubmed
Adisai Rungvichaniwat on Google Scholar
Adisai Rungvichaniwat on Pubmed
Pairote Klinpituksa on Google Scholar
Pairote Klinpituksa on Pubmed
Khalid Hamid Musa on Google Scholar
Khalid Hamid Musa on Pubmed
Amina Abdullah on Google Scholar
Amina Abdullah on Pubmed


Viewed 1183
Printed 261
Downloaded 573
Powered By iPortal Works