Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
April 2019 Vol. 8(4): pp. 166-174
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) Germplasm Collection
Nadiya A. Al-Saady1, Saleem K. Nadaf*1, Ali H. Al-Lawati1 and Saleh A. Al-Hinai2,
1Oman Animal & Plant Genetics Resources Center, The Research Council, PO Box 92, PC 123, Sultan Qaboos University Campus, Sultanate of Oman.
2Directorate General of Agriculture & Livestock Research, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 50 PC 121, Al-Seeb, Sultanate of Oman
*Corresponding Author's Email: email@example.com
Accepted 13 April, 2019
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important pulse crops cultivated for traditional consumption, in all the Arabian Peninsula countries including Oman. This paper highlights features of variation in seed characters found in only 13 accessions collected during the legume crops collecting missions across all the governorates of the Sultanate of Oman undertaken jointly by the staff of College of Agriculture, Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries between 2008 and 2011. The indigenous chickpea accessions were only from three governorates viz. the highest of 7 accessions from interior(Al-Dakhliyah) governorate followed by South Batinah governorate represented by Rustaq (5) and Dhahirah governorate (1). Seed accessions were diverse with respect to all seed characters studied, i.e. seed length (cm) and width (cm), 100-seed weight (g) and seed color. Seed length varied from 0.645 cm to 1.210 cm whereas seed width ranged from 0.505 cm to 1.005 cm. 100-seed weight was found to vary from 12.6 to 67.9 g. Chickpea accessions were classified into five groups with scores from 1 to 5 on the basis of simple (1) to complexity (5) of seed coat color pattern. With respect to seed color, the accessions were grouped into five groups based on simple to complexity of color combinations with scores from 1-5 with varying frequencies / numbers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with seed characters divided indigenous chickpea accessions into 4 genetically diverse clusters corresponding to their scatter in four quadrants of the biplot graph. The PCA further revealed almost equal contribution of seed length (33.861 %), seed width (31.437%) and 100-seed weight (34.595%) coupled with the least of seed color (0.108%) to the first principal component (PC1 or factor 1). Of the six-character combinations, only three correlation coefficients viz. between seed length and seed width (0.857**), between seed length and 100-seed weight (0.981**), and between seed width and seed weight (0.884**), were significant (p<0.05).
Keywords: Landraces, indigenous, accession, seed characters, principal components, diversity, chickpea
AlSaady NA, Nadaf SK, Al-Lawati AH, Al-Hinai SA, Al-Subhi AS, Al-Farsi SM, Al-Habsi KM,. and Siddique KHM (,2018a). Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) germplasm collection in Oman. Int. J. Agri. Innovations and Res.(IJAIR).6: 212-217.
AlSaady NA., Nadaf SK,., Al-Hinai SA, Al-Subhi AS, Al-Farsi SM, Al-Habsi KM, Esechie HA, and Siddique KHM, 2014. Multicrop Legume Germplasm Collection in Oman. International Journal of Agriculture and& Biology. 16: 231-241.
AlSaady NA, Nadaf SK, Al-Lawati AH, Al-Hinai SA, Al-Subhi AS, Al-Farsi SM, Al-Habsi KM,.and Siddique KHM, (2018b). Germplasm collection in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Oman. Int. J. Agri. Innovations and Res. (IJAIR).6: 218-224.
Amrita B, Shrivastava A, Bisen, R, and Mishra S, (2014). Study of Principal Component Analyses for Yield Contributing Traits in Fixed Advanced Generations of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Soybean Research, Pp. 44.
Arora RN, Kumar K, andManav, (2018). Principal component analysis in Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Int. J. Chem. Studies. 6: 2767-2768.
BahlPN, andSalimath PM, (1996). Genetics, cytogenetics and breeding of crop plants. Vol.1. Pulses and oil seeds. Science Pubs., Lebanon, Hampshire.
Bicer BT (2009). The effect of seed size on yield and yield components of chickpea and lentil. African J. Biotech. 8: 1482-1487.
Cuberto JI, (1987). Morphology of chickpea. In: Saxena, M.C. and Singh, K.B. (eds). The Chickpea. CAB Int., Wellingford, UK.
FAO, (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Pulses—nutritious seeds for a sustainable future. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Accessed June 20, 2018. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5528e.pdf.
Ghafoor A, Gulbaaz FN, Afzal M, Ashraf M, and Arshad M, (2003). Inter‒relationship between SDS‒PAGE markers and agronomic traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Pakistan J. Bot. 35:613‒624
Govindaraj M, Vetriventhan M, and Srinivasan M (,2015). Importance of genetic diversity assessment in crop plants and its recent advances: An overview of its analytical perspectives. Genet. Res. Int. 2015: 14.
Guarino L, (1990). Crop collecting in the Sultanate of Oman in the context of Arabian Peninsula. FAO/ IBPGR. PGR Newsl.77: 27-33.
Gupta D, Sharma HC, Pathania P, Pande S, Clements L, and Bala I, (2011). Evaluation of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for agro-morphological traits and resistance to rust in north western Indian Himalaya. Plant Disease Research. 26 (2): 171. ISSN 0970-4914.
Hay FR, and Probert RJ, (2011). Collecting and Handling in the Field. In: Crop Gene Bank. 2011. Collecting plant genetic diversity: Technical guidelines 2011 update. http://www. cropgenebank.sprp.cgiar.org/index.
Hossain S, Ford R, MsNeil D, Pittock Cand ,Panazzo JF, (2010). Development of selection tool for seed shape and QTL analysis of seed shape with other morphological traits for selective breeding in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Australian J. Crop Sci. 4: 126-136.
IPGRI, (1995). In: Collecting Plant Diversity: Technical Guidelines. Guarino, L., Rao, VR. and Read, R. (eds.). CABI.
Iqbal Z, Muhammad A, Ashraf, M, Tariq M and, Abdul W, (2008). Valuation of soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merrill] germplasm for some important morphological traits using multivariate analysis. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(6): 2323-8.
Jadav SS (, 2015). Evaluation of biochemical parameters from the promising chickpea genotypes differing in seed coat color. M.Sc. Thesis. Mahatma PhuleKrishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, India. 101 p.
Jana S and, Singh KB, (1993). Evidence of geographical divergence in Kabuli chickpea from germplasm evaluation data. Crop Sci. 33:626-632.
Jones C,. De Vega J, Lloyd D, Hegarty M, Ayling S, Powell W, andSkøt L, (2018). Population structure of red clover ecotypes collected from Europe and Asia. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 20-26.
Karakoy T, Erdem H, Baloch FS, Toklu F, Eker S, Kilian Band B, Ozkan H, (2012). Diversity of macro- and micronutrients in the seeds of lentil landraces. The Sci. World J. 2012: 710412.
Kumari SG and, Van Leur JAG, (2011). Viral diseases infecting faba bean (Viciafaba L.). Grain legumes, 56: 24-26.
MAF, (2017). Annual Agriculture Statistics-2017. Director General of planning and Investment Promotions. Department of Statistics and Information. Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries. Oman.
Mahmood MT, Ahmad M, Ali I, Hussain M, Latif A and Zubrair M (, 2018). Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for genetic diversity through multivariate analysis. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 15: 11-17.
Miladinovic J, Kurosaki H, Burton JW, Hrustic M and, Miladinovic M (, 2006). The adaptability of short season soybean genotypes to varying longitudinal regions. European Journal of Agronomy25: 243–249.
Millán T, Madrid E, Cubero JI, Amri M, Castro P and, Rubio J, (2015). Chickpea. In: De Ron, A.M. (Ed.), Grain Legumes. Springer New York, p. 85- 109.
Muehlbauer FJ and, Sarker A. (2017). Economic importance of chickpea: production, value, and world trade. In: Varshney RK, Thudi M and Muehlbauer F, (Eds.). The Chickpea Genome. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p. 5-12.
Nihal K and, Adak MS, (2012). Associations of some characters with grain yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Pakistan J. Bot. 44: 267‒272
Ojo DK, Ajayi AO and, Oduwaye OA (, 2012). Genetic relationships among soybean accessions based on morphological and RAPDs techniques. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35(2): 237–48.
Osman, Nadaf, SK, Al-Farsi SM, and Al-Hinai SA, (2002). Forage and range germplasm collection in Dhofar, Oman. Arabian Peninsula Research Program (APRP). Presented in ICARDA-APRP Annual Meeting held in Yemen. 28 September -2 October 2002. Annual Report 2001/2002. pp. 103-106.
Rafiq CM, Mahmood MT, Ahmed M, Ali I, Shafiq M, Rasool I, Latif A and, Zubair M, (2018). Exploration of genetic divergence and performance of morpho-agronomic traits of chickpea. Science, Technology and Development. 37: 202-208.
Rincon F, Martinez Band Ibane,MV, (1998). Proximate composition and antinutritive substances in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as affected by the biotype factor. J. Sci. Food Agric. 78: 382–388.
Rybinski W, Banda M, Bocianowski J, Starzycka-Korbos E, Starzycki M and Nowasad K, 2019. Estimation of the physicochemical variation in chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.). Int. Agrophys. 33: 67-80.
Sharifi P, Astereki Hand PouresmaelM (,2018). Evaluation of variations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) yield and yield components by multivariate technique. Ann. Agr. Sci. 16(2): 136-142.
Shivawanshi R and, Babbar A, (2017). Principal component analysis of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6: 166-173.
Singh FandDiwakar B, (1995). Chickpea botany and production practices. ICRISAT Training & Fellowship Program. ICRISAT, India. 57p.
Toker C, and IlhanCagirgan M (, 2004). The use of phenotypic correlations and factor analysis in determining characters for grain yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Hereditas, 140(3): 226-228.
Udupa SM, Sharma A, Sharma RP,and Rai PA, (1993). Narrow genetic variability Cicer arietinum L. as revealed by RFLP analysis. J. Plant Biochem. andBiotechnol. 2: 83-86.
UN, (2015). UN launches 2016 International Year of Pulses, Celebrating benefits of legumes. http://news.un.org./en/story/2015/11/515012.
Upadhyay HD (2003). Graphical patterns of variation for morphological and agronomic characterization in the chickpea germplasm collection. Euphytica. 132:343-352.
Williams PC, and Singh U (1986). Nutritional quality & evaluation of quality in breeding programs. In: Saxena, M.C. and Singh, K.B. (eds). The Chickpea. CAB Int., Wellingford, UK. Pp: 329-356.
XLSTAT, (2017). Data Analysis and Statistical Solution for Microsoft Excel. Addinsoft, Paris, France.
Ye H, Roorkiwal M, Valliyodan B, Zhou L, Chen P, VarshneyRK,and Nguyen HT, (2018). Genetic diversity of root system architecture in response to drought stress in grain legumes. J. Exp. Bot. 69(13): 3267-3277.
- Nadiya A. Al-Saady on Google Scholar
- Nadiya A. Al-Saady on Pubmed
- Saleem K. Nadaf on Google Scholar
- Saleem K. Nadaf on Pubmed
- Ali H. Al-Lawati on Google Scholar
- Ali H. Al-Lawati on Pubmed
- Saleh A. Al-Hinai on Google Scholar
- Saleh A. Al-Hinai on Pubmed