Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
May 2018 Vol. 7(5): pp. 163-169
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Seabirds, Anas crecca and Ringa Solitaria as bioindicators of mercury and methyl mercury contamination, from Arvand River, border between Iran and Iraq

Mahnaz Sadat Sadeghi1 and Mehdi Hosseini2


1- Assistant professor of Department of irrigation and soil physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

*Corresponding Author's Email:

Accepted 29 January, 2018



Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on seabirds in Arvand river remains limited. In this study, mercury and methyl mercury levels were determined in two bird species from Arvand river, located in the Khuzestan province in the lowlands of southwestern Iran at the head of the Persian Gulf. The order of mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in tissues of bird species were as follows: feather > liver > kidney > muscle. In the migratory bird Iran and Iraq (Anas crecca), highest value of mercury 5.2 (µg g-1) and methyl mercury 3.4 (µg g-1) were detected in feather tissue. In the resident bird of Iran (Ringa Solitaria), highest value of mercury 4.3 (µg g-1) and methyl mercury 3.1 (µg g-1) were detected in liver tissue. There were significant correlation between mercury and methyl mercury levels and bird size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in tissues of female birds were found to be significantly higher than those found in the male birds. Also, higher mercury and methyl mercury levels were in tissues of migratory bird species (Anas crecca), because mercury levels in these tissues is a reflection of diversity in food items from wider geographical locations.

Keywords: Mercury, Methyl mercury, Seabird, Bioindicator, Arvand river.






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