Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
May 2018 Vol. 7(5): pp. 163-169
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Seabirds, Anas crecca and Ringa Solitaria as bioindicators of mercury and methyl mercury contamination, from Arvand River, border between Iran and Iraq
Mahnaz Sadat Sadeghi1 and Mehdi Hosseini2
1- Assistant professor of Department of irrigation and soil physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
*Corresponding Author's Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted 29 January, 2018
Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MMHg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on seabirds in Arvand river remains limited. In this study, mercury and methyl mercury levels were determined in two bird species from Arvand river, located in the Khuzestan province in the lowlands of southwestern Iran at the head of the Persian Gulf. The order of mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in tissues of bird species were as follows: feather > liver > kidney > muscle. In the migratory bird Iran and Iraq (Anas crecca), highest value of mercury 5.2 (µg g-1) and methyl mercury 3.4 (µg g-1) were detected in feather tissue. In the resident bird of Iran (Ringa Solitaria), highest value of mercury 4.3 (µg g-1) and methyl mercury 3.1 (µg g-1) were detected in liver tissue. There were significant correlation between mercury and methyl mercury levels and bird size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in tissues of female birds were found to be significantly higher than those found in the male birds. Also, higher mercury and methyl mercury levels were in tissues of migratory bird species (Anas crecca), because mercury levels in these tissues is a reflection of diversity in food items from wider geographical locations.
Keywords: Mercury, Methyl mercury, Seabird, Bioindicator, Arvand river.
Abdolahpur Monikh F, Safahieh AR, Savari A, Doraghi A (2012). Heavy metal concentration in sediment, benthic, benthopelagic, and pelagic fish species from Musa Estuary (Persian Gulf). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment DOI 10.1007/s10661–012–2545–9.
Baron LA, Ashwood TL, Sample BE, Welsh C (1997). Monitoring bioaccumulation of contaminants in the belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). Environ Monit Assess 47, 153–165.
Barbosa AC, de Souza J, Dorea JG, Jardim WF, Fadini PS (2003). Mercury biomagnification in a Tropical Black Water, Rio Negro, Brazil. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 45, 235–246.
Burger J, Gochfeld M (1991). Lead, mercury, and cadmium in feathers of tropical terns in Puerto Rico and Australia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 21, 311–315.
Furness RW (1993). Birds as monitors of pollutants. In: Furness RW, Greenwood JJD, (eds). Birds as monitors of environmental change. Chapman & Hall, London, UK, p 103 512–525.
Gochfeld M, Burger J (1987). Heavy metal concentrations in the liver of three duck species: influence of species and sex. Environmental Pollution Ser A, 45, 1–15.
Hosseini M, Nabavi SMB, Parsa Y (2013). Bioaccumulation of mercury in trophic level of benthic, benthopelagic, pelagic fish species and sea bird from Arvand river, Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res DOI 10.1007/s12011-013-9841-2.
Horai S, Watanabe I, Takada H, Iwamizu Y, Hayashi T, Tanabe S, Kuno K (2007). Trace element accumulations in 13 avian species collected from the Kanto area, Japan. Sci Total Environ, 373, 512–525.
Houserova P, Kuban V, Kracmar S, Sitko J (2007). Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic. Environ Pollut, 145, 185–194.
Hutton M (1981). Accumulation of heavy metals and selenium in three seabird species from the United Kingdom. Environ Pollut, 26,129–145.
Kim EY, Murakami T, Saeki K, Tatsukawa R (1996). Mercury levels and its chemical form in tissues and organs of seabirds. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 30, 259–266.
Lewis SA, Furness RW (1991). Mercury accumulation and excretion in laboratory reared black-headed gull Larus ridibundus chicks. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 21, 316–320.
Monteiro LR, Granadeiro JP, Furness RW, Oliveira P (1999). Contemporary patterns of mercury contamination in the Portuguese Atlantic inferred from mercury concentrations in seabird tissues. Mar Environ Res, 47, 137–156.
Nam DH, Anan YI, kemoto T, Okabe Y, Kim EY, Subramanian A, Saeki K, Tanabe S (2005). Specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan. Environ Pollut, 134, 503–514.
Ruelas-Inzunza J, Paez-Osuna F (2004). Trace metals in tissues of resident and migratory birds from a lagoon associated with an agricultural drainage basin (SE Gulf of California). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 47,117–125.
Saeki K, Okabe Y, Kim EY, Tanabe S, Fukuda M, Tatsukawa R (2000). Mercury and cadmium in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo). Environ Pollut, 108, 249–255.
Sterry P, Cleave A, Clements A, Goodfellow P (2001). Birds of Britain and Europe. Norfolk House, London, p 253.
Thompson DR, Furness RW (1989). The chemical form of mercury stored in South Atlantic seabirds. Environ Pollut, 60, 305–317.
Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi R, Esmaili-Sari A, Ghasempoury SM, Savabieasfahani M (2008). Mercury levels in selected tissues of three kingfisher species; Ceryle rudis, Alcedo atthis, and Halcyon smyrnensi, from Shadegan Marshes of Iran. Ecotoxicology, 18, 319–324.
Zolfaghari G, Esmaili-Sari A, Ghasempouri SM, Hassanzade Kiabi B (2007). Examination of mercury concentrations in the feathers of 18 species of birds in southwest Iran. Environ Res 104, 258–265.
- mahnaz sadat sadeghi on Google Scholar
- mahnaz sadat sadeghi on Pubmed
- mehdi hosseini on Google Scholar
- mehdi hosseini on Pubmed