Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
June 2015 Vol. 4(6): pp. 259-269
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Analyses of 3-dimensional draught and soil deformation forces caused by mouldboard plough in clay loam soil

Mari, Irshad Ali2,Ji, Changying1*, Naimtullah Leghari 2, Buriro, Ghulam Ali3Chandio, Farman Ali2,ChuadryArslan1 , Asma Sattar1, and Fang Huimin1


1Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Engineering College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

2Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh Agricultural University Tando Jam, Pakistan.

3Department of Agricultural Extension, Balochistan, Pakistan.

*Corresponding Author's Email:  

Tel: 00923023071700;00862558606571.

Accepted 10 June, 2015



Draught force and soil deformation forces distribution in three dimensions are important aspects that can help in developing better understanding of tillage process and also help the engineers to improve the efficiency of tillage implements. Lab experiments were carried out to analyze draught forces (horizontal force (Fx), vertical force (Fy) and side force (Fz) and soil deformation forces (horizontal deformation force (Dx), vertical deformation force (Dy) and side deformation force (Dz)) caused by mould board plough under different speeds, depth and moisture contents. Draught forces represented increasing trend with increasing speed and depth as highest horizontal force of 5.113 kN was observed at 15 cm depth and 2 m/s speed. The same force was decreased to 2.572 kN at same speed and depth when moisture content was increased from 27 % to 33 % representing negative impact of moisture content. Maximum soil deformation force of 95.25 N was observed in horizontal direction (Dx) at 2 m/s speed and depth of 15 cm (d3) under 27% moisture content. Similar variation trend were observed for draught and deformation forces under similar set of treatments.  It was concluded that 33 % moisture content and 1 m/s speed can reduce the input energy. Soft sensing technology was also observed as a fast and effective way to study various soil forces under different field conditions.

Keywords: draught force in three directions, deformation force in three direction, moisture content, paddy soil, sensor’s  (JP-1, LD 80).


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