Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
June 2015 Vol. 4(6): pp. 248-258
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

Mycotoxigenicfungi, distribution and infestation of maize in selected sites- Kenya

Josephat1*  K. T, Kiiyukia C2 and Christine C .B,3

 

1*2Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, College of health Sciences

3 Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya.

*Corresponding Author’s E mail: kipjoston@gmail.com;   

Telephone +254 729 683 994

Accepted 16 March, 2015

 

Abstract

Mycotoxin producing moulds are of great significance to food safety and food security in the world as well as Kenya.  Fungi of the genera Aspegillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are of public health importance since they produce potent mycotoxins with adverse health effects to humans and animals. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the distribution and incidence of the mycotoxigenic moulds in maize. A Laboratory based cross-sectional study was carried out at the Mycology Laboratory in Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.  A total of 138 maize samples were obtained from farmers in Kitale, Machakos, Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu and subjected to mycological analysis. Laboratory analysis of maize samples involved culture on sabourauds dextrose agar (SDA) and incubation at 30oC for 72 hours. Microscopic identification of fungal growth was done by morphological characteristics. Fungal incidence on maize from each region were scored in different categories and compared using ANOVA. Mycotoxigenic fungi of the genera Aspegillus, Fusarium and Penicilliun were isolated from maize samples obtained from the five regions. Members of the Aspergillus spp and Fusarium spp were 38% and 42% respectively in Kitale.  While Penicillium spp was higher in Mombasa (29%) and Kisumu (24%). In Machakos, Aspergillus spp contamination was also higher (26%) compared to other regions while contamination by Penicillium spp was the lowest at (5%). Maize samples from Mombasa had the lowest infestation of Fusarium spp (4%). Generally 47% and 41% of samples from Kitale and Machakos were infested by different fungal species while those from Nairobi had a low infestation rate of 32%. Conclusion: The maize samples tested from the five regions were infested by distinct fungal genera. The varied climatic conditions in the five regions could favor the development of a certain fungal species and hence a specific mycotoxin would be of great significance.

Keywords: Maize, Mycotoxigenic fungi, Infestation and distribution.

 


 

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