Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
August 2018 Vol. 7(8): pp. 245-257
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Sorghum yield and water use under Phosphorus fertilization applications in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria

Hakeem A. Ajeigbe1, Folorunso M. Akinseye1, 2Jerome Jonah1and Ayuba Kunihya1


1International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Kano, Nigeria

2Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author's Email:

Accepted 30 July, 2018



Low soil fertility and water shortage are major constraints to food production and food security in semi-arid environments. Field experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) in two locations in Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria. The studyexaminedthe effects of Phosphorus (P) applications oncrop evapotranspiration (ETc) water use efficiency (WUE)and agronomy phosphorus use efficiency (APUE)and sorghum productivity. The experiments were arranged in split plot design with five (5) P-fertilizerlevels(0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P205ha-1) as the main plot and threevarieties (CSR01, ICSV400 and local) as sub-plot in four replications.Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) amongthe P levels and sorghum varieties for grain yield in both locations and seasons. P increased grain yield by 19-39% over control treatment.The highest mean yield of 3156 kg ha-1 at Minjibir and 2929 kg ha-1 at BUK indicate optimum yield was recorded at the 45 kgP205ha-1 application rate and significantly higher than P rates at 0, 15 and 30kgha-1 respectively.Grain yield WUE washighly significantamongP-fertilizer levels and varieties, however, no significant differences between P-fertilizer rates for biomass WUE.P-application increased grain WUE of sorghum by 20-39%, the ICSV400 estimated the mean highest value of 9.3 and 8.6 kg ha-1mm-1 over CSR-01 and local at both locations.The study observed that the application of P could be an effective fertilization strategy to enhance sorghum yield and water use in low-rainfall cropping system and drought prone environment.

Keywords: Biomass WUE, crop evapotranspiration (ETc), Grain yield WUE, P-Fertilizer effect, sorghum productivity.







Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998). Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. In: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. Rome, FAO. 

Ashraf A, Khaid A, Ali K (1999). Effects of seeding rate and density on growth and yield of rice in saline soil. Pak Biol Sci 2: 860-862.

Ayub M, Mahmood R, Tanveer A, Sharar MS (1999). Effect of seeding density on the fodder yield and quality of two maize varieties. Pak. J. Bio. Sci.,2(3): 664-666.

Bayu W,  Getachew A, Mamo T (2002).  Response of sorghum to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization in Semi0 Arid Environment in Welo, Ethiopia. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 50(1), pp. 53–65 (2002) 0238–0161/2002/$ 5.00©2002

Bilal MQ, Seed M,  Sarwar M (2000). Effect of varying level of Nitrogen and farm yard manure application on tillering and height of Mott grass. Int'l Journal Agric.Biol.,2:21-23.

Blum A (2005). Drought resis-tace,water-useefficiency,and yield potential–are they  compatible, dissonant,or mutually exclusive? Aust.J.Agric.Res. 56, 1159–1168. 

Blum A (2009). Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress.Field Crops Res. 112, 119–123.

Bodner G, Loiskandl W, Kaul HP (2007). Cover crop evapotranspiration under semi-arid conditions using FAO dual crop coefficient method with water stress compensation. Agric. Water Manag. 2007, 93, 85–98. 

Borlaug NE (2009). Foreword. Food Sec. 1, 1–11.

Buah SSJ, Kombiok JM, Abatania LN (2012). Grain sorghum response to NPK fertilizer in the Guinea savanna of Ghana. J. Crop Improv. 26:101–115,2012. doi:10.1080/15427528.2011.616625

Das AK, Khaliq QA, Haque MM, Islam MS (2008). Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on the dry matter accumulation, nodulation and yield in chickpea. Bangladesh Res. Publ. J., 1: 47-60.

Doorenbos J, Kassam AH (1979). Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 33. Rome, FAO.

Fan TL, Stewart BA, Wang YG, Luo JJ, Zhou GY (2005). Long-term fertilizationeffects on grain yield, water-use efficiency and soil fertility in the dry land ofLoess Plateau in China. Agr Ecosyst Environ 106: 313–329.

FAO (2014b). FAOSTAT. Online statistical database (retrieved November 2014) (available at http://

Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research (2 ed.).John Wiley and sons, NewYork, 680p.

Gul I, Saruhan V, Basbag M (2005). Determination of yield and yield components and relationship among the components of grain sorghum cultivars grown as main crop. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 4: 613-618.

Hadebe Sandile T, Tafadzwanashe M, Albert TM (2017). Water use of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in response to varying planting dates evaluated under rainfed conditions. Journal of Water SA Vol. 43 No. 1.

ICRISAT: Sorghum, (2009). Patancheru (AP): Int’l Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Available on the

Karikari B, Arkorful E (2015). Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Dry Matter Production and Distribution in Three Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) Varieties in Ghana. Journal of Plant Sciences 10 (5): 167-178.DOI: 10.3923/jps.2015.167.178.

Khalid M, Ijaz A, Muhammad A (2003). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the fodder yield and quality of two Sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor L.). Int. J. Agri. Biol., 5(1): 61-63.

Kouressy M, Dingkuhn M, Vaksmann M, Heinemann AB (2008a). Adaptation to diverse semiarid environments of sorghum genotypes having different plant type and sensitivity to photoperiod. Agric. For. Meteorol.148:357-371.

Kuslu YU, Shahin T, Tunc F, Kiziloglu M (2010). Determining water-yield relationship, water use efficiency seasonal crop and pan coefficient for alfalfa in a semiarid region with high altitude. Bulgarian J. Agric. Sci. 16(4): 482-492.

Lawrence JR, Ketterings QM, Cherney JH (2008). Effect of nitrogen application on yield and quality of corn. Agronomy Journal 100: 73-79.

Li FM, Song QH, Liu HS, Li FR. Liu XL (2001). Effects of pre-sowing irrigation and phosphorus application on water use and yield of spring wheat under semi-arid conditions. Agric. Water Manage. 49: 173183.Journal of Agronomy 14 (4): 272-278.

Munir I, Ranjha AM, Sarfraz M, Obaid-ur-Rehman, Mehdiand SM, Mahmood K (2004). Effect of Residual Phosphorus on Sorghum Fodder in Two Different Textured Soils. Int. J. Agric. & Biolo., 6(6): 967-969.

Narang RA, Bruene A, Altmann T (2000). Analysis of phosphate acquisition efficiency in different Arabidopsis accessions. Plant Physiol., 124: 1786-1799

Nkaa FA, Nwokeocha OW, Ihuoma O (2014). Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci., 9: 74-82.

Nyoki D, Ndakidemi PA (2014). Effects of phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth and chlorophyll content of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Am. J. Exp. Agric., 4: 1120-1136.

Parmar DK, Sharma PK (1996). Phosphorus and mulching effects on nutrient uptake and grain yield of wheat at different growth stages. Trop. Agric., 73: 196-200.

Perry C, Steduto P, Allen RG, Burt CM (2009) Increasing productivity inirrigated agriculture: agronomic constraints and hydrological realities. Agr. Water Manage 96: 1517–1524

Prasad R (2009). Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficiency: Environmental Benign Strategies. Souvenir 67-74,2009. The Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi.

Rockstro¨m J, De Rouw A (1997).Water, nutrients and slope position in on-farmpearl millet cultivation in the Sahel. Plant Soil 195: 311–327.

Roy PRS, Khandaker ZH (2010). Effect of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and nutritional values of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) fodder at three cuttings. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science 39(1&2): 106-115.

Sahrawat KL, Rego TJ, Burford JR, M.H. Rahman, J.K. Rao & A. Adam 1995. Response of sorghum to fertilizer phosphorus and its residual value in a Vertisol. Fertilizer Research 41: 41-47, 1995. 41 © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

Tardieu François, (2013). Plant response to environmental conditions: assessing potential production, water demand,and negative effects of water deficit frontiers in Physiology,Pp 1-11;Vol 4:17.

Zand-Parsa S, Sepaskhah A, Ronaghi A (2006). Development and evaluation ofintegrated water and nitrogen model for maize. Agr Water Manage 81: 227–256.

Zhou JB, Wang CY, Zhang H, Dong F, Zheng XF, et al. (2011). Effect of watersaving management practices and nitrogen fertilizer rate on crop yield and wateruse efficiency in a winter wheat–summer maize cropping system. Field CropsRes 122. 157–163.




Related Articles

Original Research Article
Arief Noor Rachmadiyanto, Komariah, Widyatmani Sih Dewi, Masateru Senge, Dwi Priyo Ariyanto
Crop water productivity (CWP) with the small farm reservoir (SFR) as a supplemental irrigation for cash crop on rainfed area in Karanganyar Regency, Indonesia
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. June 2014 Vol: 3(6): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (634 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Hakeem A. Ajeigbe on Google Scholar
Hakeem A. Ajeigbe on Pubmed
Folorunso M. Akinseye on Google Scholar
Folorunso M. Akinseye on Pubmed
Jerome Jonah on Google Scholar
Jerome Jonah on Pubmed
Ayuba Kunihya on Google Scholar
Ayuba Kunihya on Pubmed


Viewed 2336
Printed 361
Downloaded 1304
Powered By iPortal Works