Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
August 2019 Vol. 8(7): pp. 223-228
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

The release of smoke and air pollutants produced domestically when cooking and it solution

Samuel Sarkwa Anobil

 

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering University of Energy and Natural Resources

*Corresponding Author's Email: sarkwaanobilsamuel@yahoo.com

Accepted 01 April, 2019

 

Abstract

In general, biomass energy is characterized by low energy efficiency and emission of air pollutants. Biomass fuels currently used in traditional energy systems could potentially provide a much more extensive energy service than at present if these were used efficiently. For example, new stove designs can improve the efficiency of biomass use for cooking by a factor of 2 to 3. Thus, the energy service provided by biomass in this case could be potentially provided by one third to half of the amount of biomass used currently; the amount of biomass saved through efficiency improvement can be used to provide further energy services. According to a recent study, the total potential of saving biomass used for domestic cooking through substitution of the traditional stoves by improved ones in six Asian countries (China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Sri Lanka) is about 277 million tons/year (Bhattacharya et. al, 1999); the saving amounts to about 36% of the biomass consumption for cooking in these countries. Exposure to smoke from indoor biomass burning is known to cause acute respiratory infection and chronic lung disease. As pointed out by Kammen (1999), some studies have also linked wood-smoke to an increased incidence of eye infections, low birth weight and cancer. Considering the severity of indoor air problem, Reddy et al. (1997) cautions, “because a large portion of the population is exposed, the total indoor air pollution exposure (from domestic biomass combustion) is likely to be greater for most pollutants than from outdoor urban pollution in all the world’s cities combined.” Gasification of biomass (and use of the product gas) appears to be an interesting option for its clean and efficient use for cooking. Networks of producer gas supply have been reported to exist in Shandong and Hubei provinces of China (Keyun, 1993), for heating and cooking. A gasifier stove is essentially a small gasifier-gas burner system. The main advantage of a gasifier stove is the almost total elimination of smoke is possible with this design. [1] (Biomass-fired Gasifier Stove CGS3: Design, Construction and Operation Manual under Renewable Energy Technologies in Asia: A Regional Research and Dissemination Programme (RETs in Asia) Sponsored by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency). Examples of the fuel used by the gasifying stove are: Dry firewood, Sawdust, Agricultural waste (e.g. coconut shells, husks, and twigs), Wood shavings, chunks or twigs. The burn time varies with amount and type of fuel used, mainly within the range of 30 minutes to 1 hour. This kind of cooking is less expensive and will go a long way in reducing the rate at which trees are cut down in the rural areas (deforestation) and used for cooking in the three legged mud type of cooker used mainly for cooking in the rural areas. The use of the gasifying stove turns into charcoal which can then be used as a fuel again for cooking.

Keywords: pollutants, biomass energy, efficiency, emission, combustion, Gasification.

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Bhattacharya SC,  Augustus M  Leon: prospects for biomass gasifiers for cooking application in Asia: Energy Field of Study, Asian Institute of Technology P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 Thailand. Tel: +66 2 524 5418; Fax: +66 2 524 5439 e-mail: retsas@ait.ac.th.

DEEP-EA Technical Factsheet – Gasifier Stoves: GVEP International – East Africa Regional office: Kijango House, Rose Avenue/Lenana Road Killimani, P. O .Box 76580-00508, Nairobi, Kenya.

Sarah Carter, Dr Simon Shackley: Biochar Stoves: An innovation studies perspective: UK Biochar Research Centre (UKBRC) School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh.

Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency: Biomass-fired Gasifier Stove CGS3: Design, Construction and Operation Manual: Renewable Energy Technologies in Asia:A Regional Research and Dissemination Programme (RETs in Asia).

 

 

 

 

 

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