Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (GARJAS) ISSN: 2315-5094
September 2017 Vol. 6(9): pp. 269-274
Copyright © 2017 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Fungal incidence and co-contamination of aflatoxins & citrinin in raisins, pistachio nuts, walnuts and almonds marketed in Indo-Gangetic Plain of Bihar

Punam Jeswal, Dhiraj Kumar* & Manoj Kumar


P. G. Department of Biotechnology, A. N. College, Patna – 800013


Accepted 13 September, 2017



The aim of this study was conducted to assess the mycotoxigenic fungal association and co-occurrence of aflatoxins & citrinin contamination in raisins, pistachio nut, walnut and almonds from Indo-gangetic plain area of Bihar.  188 samples of raisins, pistachio nuts, walnuts and almonds were collected from gangetic area of Bihar state. Fungal associations were examined by Potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and Standard blotter paper method. 11 fungal species were isolated from these dried fruits & nuts samples in which Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant species. Qualitative and quantitative examinations of mycotoxins were conducted by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA). 76.3% of raisins and 82% of pistachio samples were contaminated with either aflatoxins or citrinin or both.  462 ppb of aflatoxins were detected from pistachio whereas only 174 ppb were detected in almonds samples. The detected citrinin level was lower in concentration than aflatoxins but the amount was sufficient to induce nephrotoxic effects. The results of this study suggest that raisins, pistachio, walnut and almonds are susceptible substrate for aflatoxigenic as well as citrinin producing fungi and further aflatoxins and citrinin productions.  

Keywords: Mycotoxigenic fungi, aflatoxins, citrinin, ELISA, dried fruits. 

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Punam Jeswal on Google Scholar
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