Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Reviews (GARJERR) ISSN: 2315-5132

November 2015, 4(10): pp. 176-188

Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Review

Low productivity of rice (the staple food of the Iraqi family) in Iraq for the period 1950-2013 …… causes and treatment

 

Reza Sahib Abu Hamad and Muhammad Ali Kadhim

University of Kufa \ College of Business and Economics \ Department of Banking and Finance

Corresponding author Email: dean.edu@uokufa.edu.iq

Accepted 16 November, 2015

Abstract

Rice is important food crop in the lunch Iraqi family and the rest of Asia, Africa and Latin America, in addition to the rice growing source of livelihood for half the world's population to economic yield. Cultivation of rice can use for improvement saline soil when there were agrarian rounds. There are possibilities to increase the cultivated areas, as well as productivity and production when there were available production inputs as there were a great awareness of the importance product by farmers .There are many reasons led to the reduction of cultivated and low areas, productivity and thus production, namely: little or no mechanization where not use enough technology of mechanization, fertilizers, pesticides and high seed production fit with the conditions in Iraq ,Iittle or no water, fear the farmers of non-arrival of water to their farms, lack of improved seeds provide a certified and the adoption of the farmers on the inventory of the previous years, the land left due to migration and provides the functions of the rural non-farm sector for the family, lack of incentives and support by only Agricultural organs in the cultivation of the crop,  lack and the provision of electricity and material backup for machinery and equipment ,the adoption of the peasants on what they inherited from the customs and traditions of their parents led to a lack of follow-up data of science and technology, non-use of agricultural courses to stimulate the fertility of the soil and the lack of a plan for land reclamation and thus increase salinity , there were Notes field for rice adopted by the little peasants and farmers and agricultural companies where production increased to more than 1,000 kg \ dunem must be other farmers benefit from them ,the lack of an economic assessment of the fields with a high output in order to honor the owners and motivate them to higher productivity. Adding to the problem is the lack of full coordination between the needs of agriculture mechanization and machinery commensurate with the soil of Iraq, as well as electrical generators and agricultural pumps and between the industry and its needs of raw agriculture materials required for the manufacturing ,the lack of fair internationally for the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and low water resources distribution to double by 2015, which requires a solution political to this big problem which affected negatively on the production , increase the loss and waste in the use of water in the cultivation of rice in addition to the lack of rationalization , the receipt of loans by some farmers for the cultivation of rice and used for non-agricultural purposes because of favoritism and lack of follow-up and nepotism (the existence of administrative and financial corruption). From the results of that increase the size of the gap between food production and consumption to three times after the 2003 war, which calls for it to rationalize the consumption of rice and maintain strategic inventories, which 17% of the volume of annual consumption ,Economic openness to the world and neighboring countries.

Keywords: Productivity, Rice, Crop, Cultivation, Agriculture, Iraq

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