Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Reviews (GARJERR) ISSN: 2315-5132

March 2016, 5(3): pp. 038-044

Copyright © 2016 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

Changes in parasitic load, phagocytosis and ultra-structural pattern in experimental cryptosporidiosis following combined (Antox and Nitazode) treatment

Wafaa El-komy1, Soheir Mahmoud1, Hoda Sabry1, Soheir Mansy2and Nevine Guirguis1

1Parasitology and 2 Electron microscope department Theodor Bilharz Research Institute Cairo Egypt

Corresponding Author Email: nevinenessim@hotmail.com

Accepted 07 March, 2016

Abstract

Infection with cryptosporidium produces mild and self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent persons and a prolonged, life-threatening cholera-like illness in immunocompromised patients and underweight children .On the other hand, cells are protected from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen intermediates by specific endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes and the level of these anti-oxidants in blood is closely dependent on the nutritional status of the host. This study was done to assess the effect of administration of the antioxidant Antox alone,and /or in combination with nitazoxanide (nitazode) in experimental cryptosporidiosis. Lab bred albino mice were divided into 4 groups; infected control (gr I), infected treated with Antox (gr II), infected treated with Nitazode (gr III) and group IV, infected and treated with combination of Antox and Nitazode. All drugs were given orally for 7 consecutive days. The number of cryptosporidium oocysts was counted in small intestinal contents after scraping &staining with modified ZN stain. Phagocytosis index was examined in duodenal section. After animal sacrifice, ileal intestinal region was subjected to transmission electron microscopic examination. Treatment with Nitazode (gr III) resulted in significant reduction in the number of oocysts one week (52.2%) &two weeks (84.1%) post treatment. The combination regimen (gr IV) resulted in the highest significant reduction one week (68.1%) and two weeks (84.1%) post-treatment. The group receiving Antox (gr II), showed slight reduction one week post treatment, but was not significantly different from infected control (gr I) after two weeks. The phagocytic index increased significantly in all treated groups one week post treatment. It started to decrease in all groups at the 2nd week post treatment except group II. The ultrathin sections prepared from ileum of infected treated mice (group IV) revealed degenerated epithelial microvilli with exposure of cryptosprodia. In conclusion, combination of NTZ and Antox revealed the best antiprotozoal effect according to oocysts count stained with modified ZN. Antox alone, ameliorated the ultra-structural findings, but did not decrease oocyst burden in intestinal contents. The data of this study are reported in immunocompetent mice, the outcome would differ in immunosuppressed model.

Keywords: Immunocompetent, Immunosuppressed, Phagocytosis, Oocysts, Antox, Cryptosporidia, Nitazode

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