Gobal Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology
June 2012 Vol. 1(3), pp. 038-045
Copyright © 2012 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Evaluating the potential of rainwater harvesting as a supplementary source of water supply in Kanai (Mali) district of Zangon-kataf local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Vivan Ezra Lekwot¹*, Ikomoni Oghenekaro Samuel1, Ezemokwe Ifeanyi² and Onyemelukwe Olisaemeka²

¹Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos, Nigeria.
²Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ezravivan@yahoo.com ; Mobile: +2348032880342, +2348097601269

Accepted 15 June, 2012


Rainwater harvesting is an economical small-scale technology that has the potential to boost safe water supply with least disturbance to the environment, especially in the semi arid regions. In Nigeria, less than half of the population has reasonable access to reliable water supply. This study in Kanai (Mali) district of Zangon-Kataf local government area of Kaduna state  Nigeria determined the rate of water consumption and current water sources before estimating the amount of rainwater that can potentially be harvested using 225 copies of well structured questionnaires administered to households. Questions were related to the socio-economic characteristics of household and the sources of water, system or methods of rainwater harvesting, time and the distance spent to source for water, purpose for rain harvesting, strategies used by individuals/households to cope with domestic water scarcity and whether the strategies adopted meet their demand for water supply or not. A survey on 88 households in three villages namely, Runji, Gora Gida, and Sagwaza established that more than half of them rely on sources that are vulnerable to drought, i.e. shallow hand-dug wells and natural water bodies, while only 3% harvest rainwater. Kaduna state where the study area is located have a mean annual rainfall of 1,064 mm. Annual rain water harvesting potential per household was estimated to be 63.35 m3. The amount could not meet the water demand for the study area although the three villages would have to supplement their rainwater with other sources. There is therefore sufficient rainwater to supplement the need of the rural communities if the existing mechanism and low involvement of the villagers in rainwater harvesting activities could be improved.

Keywords: Rainwater harvesting, Water sources, Public water supply, Households, Water storage


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