Gobal Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology
July 2012 Vol. 1(4), pp. 072-079
Copyright © 2012 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

Groundwater investigation in Rabigh Governorate, West of Saudi Arabia

Al-Hasawi Z.M1  and  Hussein K.H*1, 2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt

*Corresponding  Author  E-mail: ahssan555@yahoo.com

Accepted 18 July, 2012

Abstract

Groundwater is generally presumed to be good for human consumption and is used as a potential source of drinking water. Agricultural development, urbanization and industrialization are the major causes for all changes in the quality of water. Saudi Arabia is an arid and the largest country in the Middle East. Recent urban and rural expansion has shown manifold increases in water use in various sectors. Water resources are limited and non-renewable coupled with unpredicted scanty rainfall. In order to meet the rising water needs, evaluation of water quality is important for allocation to various uses.  The quality of 36 wells water in selected villages in Rabigh Region, West of Saudi Arabia used mainly for drinking was examined with respect to total dissolved salts (TDS), pH, total hardness, and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and bicarbonate, beside coli form bacteria as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The TDS of tested water samples varied widely from 166 to 2400 mg/L. The chemical quality of well water of Rabigh has been studied in detail in order to demonstrate the potable groundwater zones without any deterioration by pollution. Water samples were analyzed for total salt concentration, pH, Ca, Mg, Po4, TDS, HC03, Cl, S04, N03, and NH4 contents. The EC of groundwater ranged between 230.0µs/cm to300.0 µs/cm. Magnesium was the most abundant cation. Chloride was the most abundant anion followed by HC03 and S04 in groundwater of Rabigh. The N03 concentration is more than the safe limits for drinking purpose according to WHO (2003) standards. PO4 values are within the permissible limits according to SASO (1993).

Keywords: Groundwater, Water quality, Pollutants, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

 

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