Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116
January 2020 Vol. 9(1): pp. 005-012
Copyright © 2020 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

 

Impact of Agro-Ecological Areas on the Distribution of Aspergillus Section Flavi in Maize in Benin

Yann Christie Sissinto Adjovi*1,2, Raoul Koulony2, Mènonvè M. Atindehou2, Eugénie Anago2 and  Ambaliou Sanni2

  1. Ecole des Sciences et Techniques de Conservation et de Transformation des Produits Agricoles / Université Nationale d’Agriculture. BP 114, Sakété (Benin).
  2. Unité de Biochimie et de Biologie Moléculaire / Université d’Abomey-Calavi. 04BP0320 Cotonou (Benin)
  3. Ecole polytechnique de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi / Université d’Abomey-Calavi

Email: kh.saravani93@gmail.com

Accepted 26 January, 2020

 

Abstract

Maize is the first cereal grown in the world and adapted as a food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In Benin, it is the leading cereal crop with nearly 70% of the cereal area sown. But the post-harvest storage conditions of these cereals favour the development of moulds and mycotoxins. Previous work has revealed Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in stored maize, naturally occurring substances that are carcinogenic to humans. The objective of this work is to evaluate the contamination of maize in storage by agro-ecological area. To do this, the study had collected 50 samples from différents agro-ecological zones in Benin. On them, evaluated aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-PDA, determined total fungal flora by direct culture and aflatoxinogenic nature of strains of Aspergillus Flavi by culture in différents media and thin layer chromatography. At the end of this work, 30.43% of the samples collected are contaminated by aflatoxins with an average of 6,41µg/kg. Contaminated samples were taken from agro-ecological zones 1, 3, 5 and 6 with mean aflatoxins levels of 1.88 µg/Kg; 5.81 µg/Kg; 8.38 µg/Kg and 9.59 µg/Kg respectively. Mycological analysis revealed five fungal genre : Aspergillus (53.38%), Fusarium (23.31%), Penicillium (17.29%), Rhizopus (2.26%) and Mucor (1.50%). By agro-ecological zone, a similarity is noted with regard to the total fungal flora. Of the 67 strains of Aspergillus Flavi isolated, 65 are aflatoxin-producing and the highest incidence found in agro-ecological zone 6 followed by zone 5. The contamination of maize stored in Benin by aflatoxins and the various subspecies of the Flavi section follows a distribution by agro-ecological zone due to different climatic conditions. The production of a distribution map of pathogenic strains by speculation could help to monitor the evolution of the quality of agricultural products.

Keywords:  Map, aflatoxins, fungi, climate.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Aamir, S. (2015). A rapid and efficient method of fungal genomic DNA extraction, suitable for PCR based molecular methods. Plant Pathology & Quarantine, 5(2), 74–81. https://doi.org/10.5943/ppq/5/2/6

Adam, K. S., Boko, M. (1983). Le Bénin. Paris, EDICEF.

Adjovi, Y. C. S., Bailly, S., Gnonlonfin, B. J. G., Tadrist, S., Querin, A., Sanni, A., Bailly, J. D. (2014). Analysis of the contrast between natural occurrence of toxigenic Aspergilliof the Flavi section and aflatoxin B1 in cassava. Food Microbiology, 38, 151–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2013.08.005

Asiedu, JJ. (1989)., Processing of tropical crops. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London, 1989.

Bandyopadhyay, R., Kumar, M., Leslie, J.F. (2007). Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa. Food Addit Contam 24, 1109-1114.

Bankole, S.A., Mabekoje, O.O. (2004). Occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in preharvest maize from south-western Nigeria. Food Addit Contam 21, 251-255.

Battilani, P., Toscano , P., Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J., Moretti, A., Camardo Leggieri, M., Brera, C., … Robinson, T. (2016). Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 24328.

Dayou, E. D., Zokpodo, K. L. B., Glèlè Kakaï, A. L. R., & Ganglo, C. J. (2017). Impacts of the conventional tillage tools and reduced tillage on the soil fertility preservation: critical review. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 117(1), 11684. https://doi.org/10.4314/jab.v117i1.5

Hell, K., Cardwell, K., Setamou, M., Poehling, H.-M. (2000). The influence of storage practices on aflatoxin contamination in maize in four agro-ecological zones of Benin, west Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(4), 365–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-474X(99)00056-9

Kawasugi, S, Kawasima, K, Siriacha, P., Tonboon-Ek, P. (1988). Experimental studies on the field-dried Thai maize inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. Proc. Jpn. Assoc. Mycoloxicol., 28, 17.

Kolawolé Sikirou ADAM et Michel BOKO (1993). Le Bénin, les éditions du Flamboyant, EDICEF.

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