Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116
March 2019 Vol. 8(2): pp. 038-050
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper


The Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated With Plants in Ethiopia and Its Role in Agro-Ecosystem 

Girma Zeleke*, Beyene Dobo

Girma Zeleke, Hawassa University, Department of Biology, P.O.Box: 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia


Accepted 22 March, 2019



In this review it has been tried to surface out the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the agro ecosystem. Particularly, AMF's contribution to stabilize soil  fertility,  reduction of  use  of   phosphate fertilizer,  increase in plant  tolerance  against  biotic  &  abiotic  stresses,  and  enhancement of  quality  plant production was  reviewed.  Besides,  this  review  has  attempted  to  compile  several  efforts, conducted  so  far  in  the  study  of  AMF  diversity  and  abundance  at  different  land  use  patterns  in Central, Rift Valley, Northern and Southern Ethiopia. AMF diversity, plant-fungus assemblages, is generally influenced by the slope, soil physico-chemical nature. Especially soil PH, availability of extractable chemicals such as calcium & potassium, its cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity and field capacity are determinant factors. However, the effects of   factors such as  plant  community  in  the  AMF  community  composition  are  less  clear.  In general, infectivity and diversity of AMF communities is often reduced in disturbed habitats such as agro ecosystems or post-mining sites. AMF are considered to have low specificities of association with host species, but this conclusion is mostly based on experiments in which individual isolates of fungal species are grown separately. When fungi are examined as a community, evidence suggests fungal growth rates are  highly  host-specific,  hence  it  can  be  concluded  that  ecological  specificity  applied  to  some arbuscular  mycorrhizal  associations.  However, the competitive balance between AM fungal species in terms of their ability to colonize roots may be affected by environmental conditions. This  specificity  of  fungal  response  could  contribute  to  the  maintenance  of  diversity  within  the  AMF community.  Regarding  the seasonal  diversity  of  AMF,  evidence  has  showed  that  fungal  spore density differs seasonally, with some fungi sporulating in late spring and others sporulating at the end of summer. As the spores represent the dormant state of the fungus, the physiologically active state is most likely the mirror image of the seasonal spore counts. Though scholars in Ethiopia have contributed tremendously, yet there are still lots of tasks which are required to be carried out to help respond the outstanding questions allied with fungi-plant assemblages. .

Keywords:  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Diversity, Agroecosystem.





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