Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116
May 2018 Vol. 7(3): pp. 048-056
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper


Acinetobacter baumannii complex and its antibiotics susceptibility in selected hospital's intensive care units at Sana’a city-Yemen

Abdulrahman Ali Mohammed Zabada*, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghirb, Anwar Kassem Al-Madhagic, Khaled Abdulkarim Al-Moyedc


aDepartment of Medical Microbiology, High Institute for Health Sciences, Sana`a, Yemen

bDepartment of Medical Analysis, Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussein College of Nursing and Medical Sciences, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma`an, Jordan.

cDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana`a University, Yemen



Accepted 06 April, 2018



Background and Aim: The main challenge with Acinetobacter baumannii complex (Abc) is its ability to rapidly cause antimicrobial-resistance and ineffective antibiotic therapy. This study is therefore designed to investigate the prevalence rates, infection risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Abc in ICUs. Methods: This Cross-Sectional study was carried out for duration of one year in the intensive care units (ICU) units of three hospitals in Sana`a city, Yemen with 280 ICU patients as participants and 80 environmental samples. Results: The prevalence rate of Abc of 7.1% was determined for 280 individual patients admitted in ICU, with 12.9 % in respiratory specimens and 1.4% in blood specimens. All isolated Abc`s became multi-drug resistant over time. Resistance rates were found to be 95% for Piperacillin-Tazobactam, 90% for Imipenem, Cefepime and Ticracillin, 80 % for Amikacin and Doxcycyclin, and 60% for Levofloxacin. However, no resistant isolates were found for Colistin and polymyxin B. The prevalence of Abc in ICUs environment was 8.8% and these isolates were indistinguishable from the clinical isolates using biotyping and antibiotics susceptibilities.  Conclusions: Based on its characteristic multi-drug resistance and potential risk to ICU patients, suggestions were offered to prevent nosocomial infections by Abc.   

Keywords:  Acinetobacter baumannii, Intensive Care Units, antibiotics susceptibility, Yemen.





Alp E, Yerer M, Kocagoz S, Metan G, Esel D, Gürol Y (2009). The risk factors and spread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in intubated patients in a medical intensive care unit. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 39: 761-69.

Babay HA, Kambal A, Anazy AAl, Saidu AB, Aziz S (2003). Acinetobacter blood stream infection in a teaching hospital  Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Kuwait. Med. J. 35: 196-201.

Cetin ES, Durmaz R, Tetik T, Otlu B, Kaya S, Çalişkan A (2009). Epidemiologic characterization of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii infections in a Turkish university hospital by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Am. J. Infect. Control. 37: 56-64.

Choi W, Kim S, Jeon E, Son MH, Yoon YK, Kim JY (2010).  Nosocomial Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Units and Successful Outbreak Control Program. J. Korean Med. Sci. 25: 999-1004.

Chua MM, Alejandria MM (2008). The Epidemiology of Acinetobacter Infections Among Critically Ill Adult Patients Admitted at the University of the Philippines- Philippine General Hospital, Philippine. J. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37: 38-53.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2007). Performance standards form antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing, Seventeenth informational supplement, C L S I document M100-S17 [ISBN 1-56238-625-5]. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute, West Valley Road, Wayne, Pennsylvania, 19087-1898 USA, 2007.

Corbella X, Montero A, Pujol M, Domínguez MA, Ayats J,  Argerich MJ (2000) . Emergence and Rapid Spread of Carbapenem Resistance during a Large and Sustained Hospital Outbreak of Multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Clin Microbiol.       38:  4086-4095.

Dent LL, Marshall DR, Siddharth P (2010). Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a descriptive study in a city hospital. BMC Infect. Dis. 10: 196.

Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Seifert H (2007).  An increasing threat in   hospitals multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Nature.  Rev. Microbiol. 5: 939–951.

Eliopoulos GM, Maragakis LL, Perl TM (2008). Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, and treatment options. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46(8): 1254-1263.‏

Falagas M, Karveli E, Siempos I, Vardakas KZ (2008). Acinetobacter infections: a growing threat for critically ill patients. Epidemiol Infect. 136: 1009–1019.

Fournier PE, Richet H, Weinstein RA (2006). The epidemiology and control of Acinetobacter baumannii in health care facilities. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 692-699.

Getchell-White SI, Donowitz LG, Groschel DH (1989). The Inanimate Environment of an Intensive Care Unit as a Potential Source of Nosocomial Bacteria Evidence for Long  Survival of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 910: 402–406.

Jawad A, Heritage J, Snelling AM, Gascoyne-Binzi DM, Hawkey PM (1996). Influence of relative humidity and suspending menstrua on survival of Acinetobacter spp. on dry surfaces.  J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2881-2887.

Joshi SG, Litake GM, Satpute MG, Telang NV, Ghole VS, Niphadkar K (2006).  Clinical and demographic features of infection caused by Acinetobacter species. Indian J .Med. Sci. 60: 351-60.

Jung J, Park M, Kim S, Park B. H, Son J. Y, Kim EY, Kang YA (2010). Risk factors for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in patients with colonization in the intensive care unit. BMC Infec. Dis. 10: 228.

Kuo SC, Chang SC, Wang HY, Lai JF, Chen PC, Shiau YR, Huang IW, Lauderdale TLY (2012). Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program. BMC Infect. Dis. 12: 200.

Munoz-Price LS, Weinstein RA (2008). Acinetobacter infection, New England J. Medicine. 358: 1271-1281.

Musa EK, Desai N, Casewell MW (1990). The survival of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus inoculated on fingertips and on formica. J. Hosp. Infect. 15: 219–227.

Nemec A, Krizova L, Maixnerova M, van der Reijden TJ, Deschaght P, Passet V, et al. (2011).Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii complex with the proposal of Acinetobacter pittii sp. nov.(formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 3) and Acinetobacter nosocomialis sp. nov.(formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU). Res. in Microbiol. 162: 393-404.

Peleg AY, Seifert H, Paterson DL (2008). Acinetobacter baumannii: Emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21: 538-82.

Prata-Rocha M, Gontijo-Filho P, Melo Bd (2012). Factors influencing survival in patients with multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 16: 237-241.

Rafei R, Kempf M, Eveillard M, Dabboussi F, Hamze M, Joly-Guillou ML (2014). Current molecular methods in epidemiological typing of Acinetobacter baumannii. Future Microbiol. 10: 1179-1194.

Roca I, Espinal P, Vila-Farrés X, Vila J (2012). The Acinetobacter baumannii oxymoron: commensal hospital dweller turned pan-drug-resistant menace. Front. Microbiol. 3: 148.

Rungruanghiranya S, Somboonwit C, Kanchanapoom K (2005). Acinetobacter Infection in the Intensive Care Unit. J. Infect. Dis. Antimicrob. Agents. 22: 77-85.

Sherertz RJ, Sullivan ML (1985). An outbreak of infections with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in burn patients: contamination of patients' mattresses. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 252-258.

 Sunenshine RH, Wright MO, Maragakis LL, Harris AD, Song X, Hebden J (2007). Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter Infection Mortality Rate and Length of Hospitalization. Emerg. Infec. Dis. 13: 97-103.

Thom KA, Johnson JK, Lee MSM, Harris AD (2011). Environmental contamination due to multidrug-resistant acinetobacter baumannii surrounding colonized or infected patients. Am. J. Infect. Control. 39: 711–715.

Ugochukwu N, Adetona F, Adeola F, Ajani BR, Olusanya O (2013). Nosocomial Acinetobacter Infections in Intensive Care Unit. Am. J. Infect. Dis. 9: 40-45.

Vincent JL (2003). Nosocomial infection in adult intensive care units, Lancet. 361: 2068-2077.

Weernink A, Severin WP, Tjernberg I, Dijkshoorn L (1995). Pillows, an unexpected source of Acinetobacter. J. Hosp. Infect. 29: 189–199.

Yadegarinia D, Abedy S, Gachkar L, Rahmati SR (2013). Prevalence and Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in ICU of a Teaching Hospital. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci. 3: 22-27.

Zarrilli R, Casillo R, Di Popolo A, Tripodi MF, Bagattini M, Cuccurullo S (2007). Molecular epidemiology of a clonal outbreak of multidrug‐resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a university hospital in Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 13: 481-489.

Related Articles

Original Research Articles
Adel S Al-Zubairi, Mohamed A Al-Mamary and Eftekhar Al-Ghasani
The Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Different Aromatic Plants
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol September 2017 Vol: 6(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (168 KB)
Sadegh Peery, Abdolmajid Doraghi Mohammad, Taghi Ronagh and Alireza Safahieh
Mercury bioaccumulation in sediment and root of mangrove forest, Avicennia marina from Emam Khomein Port, north part of the Persian Gulf
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol June 2018 Vol: 7(6): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,074 KB)
Magdy A Abu-Gharbia, Michael N Agban, El-Mewafy A El-Ghadban and Rasha Z Abdelmasieh
Antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil against carbapenems resistant Klebsiella pneumonia strains (as nosocomial pathogen) isolated from intensive care units of two hospitals
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol January 2015 Vol: 4(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (94 KB)
Nabil Hussein Al Fahim, Wan Jamaliah Wan Jusoh, Adewale Abideen
Factors Affecting the Intention to adopt Internet Banking Services among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Yemen
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol September 2014 Vol: 3(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (404 KB)
Hisham N Altayb, Mohamed A M Siddig, Nagwa M El Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim Hashim, Maowia M. Mukhtar
Molecular Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs among Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different regions in Sudan
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol April 2018 Vol: 7(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,351 KB)
Nasser Habtoor
Influence of Management Support on Organizational Commitment and Service Quality
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol March 2019 Vol: 8(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (289 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Abdulrahman Ali Mohammed Zabad on Google Scholar
Abdulrahman Ali Mohammed Zabad on Pubmed
Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir on Google Scholar
Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir on Pubmed
Anwar Kassem Al-Madhagi on Google Scholar
Anwar Kassem Al-Madhagi on Pubmed
Khaled Abdulkarim Al-Moyed on Google Scholar
Khaled Abdulkarim Al-Moyed on Pubmed


Viewed 2214
Printed 284
Downloaded 818
Powered By iPortal Works