Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116
February 2020 Vol. 9(3): pp. 030-039
Copyright © 2020 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper


Advances in the Community Surveillance of the Zika virus in a country border: Huaquillas, El Oro. Ecuador

Velásquez Serra GC1, Figueroa Samaniego SE2, Llangari Cujilema JL3, Preciado Cañas OE4, Chaguaro Feijoo JA4, Silva Salas SD5, Echeverría Matute A6.

1PhD. in Entomology. Guayaquil University. Faculty of Medicine. Medicine School. Ecuador. University of Guayaquil. Cdla. Salvador Allende. Av. Delta y Av. Kennedy. Guayaquil, Ecuador. EC090514.

2Machala Technical University. Chemical Science and Health Faculty. Nurse Career. Machala. Ecuador.

3National Institute of Public Health Research. INSPI. Dr. Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez. Zonal Tena. Ecuador.

4Guayaquil University. Faculty of Medicine. Medicine School. Ecuador. University of Guayaquil. Cdla. Salvador Allende. Av. Delta y Av. Kennedy. Guayaquil, Ecuador. EC090514.

5Ministry of Public Health. National Direction of Prevention and Control Strategies. Quito. Ecuador.

6Public Health Ministry of Ecuador.


Accepted 28 April, 2020



Background: New insights promote the term “Community Participation” as a condition to exercise freedom, democracy, social control over public actions and therefore, for equity. Vector-borne disease control of arboviruses such as Zika Virus (ZIKV) should actively involve the population, since human resources and health logistics are insufficient to address the problem. Objectives: identify the risk factors by the community to contract the ZIKV, determine the age and sex group of the participants, identify positive blocks with breeding sites of Ae. aegypti, indicate the more prevalent stage of the vectors and the number of pregnant women suspected of the virus. Materials and Methods: was a participatory, descriptive, field-based, non-experimental and longitudinal-cut action research, executed in Neighborhood 18 de Noviembre, Huaquillas-El Oro-Ecuador during the months of March to September, 2018. Results:The age group of 20-49 years for both sexes (n = 25, 78.13%) and (n = 36, 85.71%) In relation to the family heads interviewed, the predominant age group was also 20-49 years old. Males (n = 692, 43.2%) and female (n = 814; 50.84). The deposits inspected were 3251. The 48 blocks of the neighborhood were explored; of them (28) were positive. Positive breeding sites were found (58.33%). Of the positive blocks (67.85%), they were positive for larvae, 3.57% for pupae and 28.57% for both. The number of pregnant women identified was 15; 5 of them suspected of ZV, later discarded. Conclusions: This study represents an evidence on community epidemiological surveillance, for the control of Ae. aegypti and Zika prevention.

Keywords: prevention, community, Aedes aegypti, virus, zika





Aguilar- Idáñez MJ (2001). Community participation in health: myth or reality? Madrid: Díaz de Santos.  19-40.

Autonomous Decentralized Government of the Canton Huaquillas (GADCH). (2014). Prefecture of El Oro. Territorial Development and Order Plan of the Province of El Oro.  Available at:

Burbano N, Becerra S, Pasquel E (2015). Introduction to the Hydrogeology of Ecuador. National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (INHEM). 2nd Edition. 128p.  

Cáceres FM and Hernández A (2008). Community participation and control of dengue. Magazine of the Industrial University of Santander. 40: 222-228.

Center Disease Control (CDC). (2018). Mac-Elisa for Zika Exclusive Use for Emergencies.  Available at:

Chang Camero Y, Lugo Mendosa J, Barceló Rodríguez G, Martínez García J, Chao Sautie MI (2013).Deposits observed with Aedes aegypti larvae during the operational use of Bactivecbiolarvicide. Cuban Journal of Tropical Medicine. 65: 90-98.

Collaboration of Health Communication Capacity (HC3) (2017). Knowledge and behaviors for the prevention of Zika in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Baltimore, MD: Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins. Available:

Figueroa-Pedraza D (2002). Community Participation and Health. Salus cum propositum vitae. Department of Nutrition. Federal University of Pernambuco (Brazil) In Salus cum. Propositum vitae.  3: 1-13.

Garcia PC, Alfonso AP (2013). Epidemiological surveillance in health. AMC. 17 (6): 121-128.

Geodata (2018). Geographical coordinates of Huaquillas, El Oro, Ecuador. 2018.  Available at:

Hernández-Escolar J, Consuegra-Mayor C, Herazo-Beltrán Y (2014). Knowledge, attitudes and practices about Dengue in a neighborhood of the city of Cartagena de Indias. Rev Salud pública. 16:  281-292.

Hernández-Hernández N, Garnica-González J (2015). Problem Tree of the Analysis to the Design and Development of Products. Technological Awareness. 50: 38-46.

Kauffman EB, Kramer LD (2017). Zika Virus Mosquito Vectors: Competence, Biology, and Vector Control. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 216: S976-S990.

Maestre-Serrano R, Pacheco-Lugoy L, Salcedo-Mendoza S (2015). Indexes of aedic infestation and identification of knowledge, attitudes and practices on dengue in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Rev. public health. 17: 738-748.

Maguiña C, Galán-Rodas E (2016). The Zika virus: a literature review. Acta Med Peru.33: 35-41.

Marín Rodríguez R, Marquetti Fernández MC, Díaz Ríos M (2009) Larval indices of Aedes aegypti before and after control interventions in Limón, Costa Rica. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 61: 1-10.

Marston C, Hinton R, Kean S, Baral S, Ahuja A, Costello A (2016). Community participation in the taking of transformation measures for the health of women, children and adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 96: 309-404.

Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador (MSP) (2018). The Local Health Committees: the new Guardians of Life. 2018.  Available at:

Mitton C, Smith N, Peacock S, Evoy B, Abelson J (2009). Public participation in health care priority setting: A scoping review. Health Policy. 91: 219-228.

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (INAMHI). (2018).Huaquillas, El Oro-Ecuador.   Available at:

Novillo R (2017). Consultancy development of a KAP study ̶ knowledge, attitudes and individual and collective practices ̶ on the prevention and control of Zika in selected areas of intervention of the project "Together before the Zika" in Ecuador. Technical document. CARE. Ecuador.

Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) (2016).Communication of risks in Zika and community participation are at the center of a new prevention effort of the CDC, the CDC Foundation, and PAHO in the Americas. Available at:

Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) (2017). Zika- Epidemiological Update.   Available at:

Pogrebinschi T (2017). LATINNO Dataset. Berlin: WZB. 

Pyszczek OL, Sáez-Sáez V (2016). Occurrence and threat of dengue, chikungunya and zika caused by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The situation in the Argentine Republic 2015. Terra Nueva Etapa. 17: 133-161.

Rodríguez CR (2002). Strategies for the control of dengue and Aedes aegypti in the Americas. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 54: 189-201.

Rubio-Palis Y, Guzman H, Espinosa J, Cardenas L, Bevilacqua M, Medina D (2011). First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L) .in remote areas of the state of Bolívar. Bulletin of Malariology and Environmental Health. 5: 89-91.

Sáinz-Ruiza PA, Mínguez-Arias J, Martínez-Riera JR (2019). Health councils as an instrument for community participation in La Rioja. Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Administration. Gac Sanit. 33(2):134-140. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.09.012.

Salamanca-Ramos E.(2015). Lifestyles promoters of health in women of the social programs of Villavicencio-Colombia. Orinoquía. 19: 213-219.

Terazón MO, Muñiz SZ, Terazón MM (2014). Risk factors associated with the proliferation of Aedes aegipty in the Popular Council "Los Maceos". MEDISAN. 18: 541-549.

Tognoni G (1998). Manual of Community Epidemiology. CECOMET. Esmeraldas. Ecuador.

Torres SA, Zayas VM (2014). Bulbs of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in samples taken from a health area in Santiago de Cuba. MEDISAN. 18: 369-377.

Velásquez Serra GC, Silva Salas SD, LlangariCujilema JL. (2017).Aedes aegypti larval index (Diptera: Culicidae) and its relation with the occurrence of Dengue and Chikungunya cases in the Province of Orellana. Ecuador. Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS).  6: 184-191

Vélez Arango AL (2007), New Dimensions of the Health Concept: The Right to Health in the Social State of Law. Towards the Promotion of Health.12: 63-78.

World Health Organization (1990). The introduction of a mental health component in primary health Geneva: WHO. Available at:

World Health Organization (WHO) (2016). Surveys of knowledge, attitudes and practices Zika virus disease and possible complications; Available:;jsessionid=352DB86FB668284E133BB72FEEFE4A9B?sequence=1

World Health Organization (WHO) (2018). Zika virus disease, 2018. Available at:

World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, World Vision International. (2016). Results Report ZIKV Emergency - Risk Communication Social Sciences and Operational Research Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Country Report, Honduras. Available at:

Yepes A (2016). Emergency Zikv: Results of The Consultation Process Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) About Zikv Country Report: Colombia. World Vision International, Pan American Health Organization.  Available:




Related Articles

Original Research Article
Tuntufye Selemani Mwamwenda
American and African Adolescents’ Claim to HIV/AIDS Invulnerability.
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol January 2015 Vol: 4(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (124 KB)
Oloyede EO and Adesina ADO
Egalitarianism and classroom discipline: A pre requisite to successful instructional processes in mathematics.
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol June 2013 Vol: 2(6): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (151 KB)
Original Research Articles
Fernán Cosme Chanamé Zapata, Glodoaldo Álvarez Oré, Kenny H. Velásquez Tristán, Waldimar Pérez Torres, Arturo Rubelo Cárdenas, Juan Carlos Velásquez Mantari, James Ramos Medina, Carmen Turco Navarrete, Saúl Espinoza Molina
Improvement, Rehabilitation and Productive Management of High Andean Prairies in the Province of Churcampa - Huancavelica, Peru
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol February 2017 Vol: 6(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,194 KB)
El-Kersh TA, Marie MA, Al-Sheikh YA and Al-Kahtani SA
Prevalence and risk factors of community-acquired urinary tract infections due to ESBL-producing Gram negative bacteria in an Armed Forces Hospital in Sothern Saudi Arabia
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol August 2015 Vol: 4(8): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (374 KB)
Hisham N Altayb, Mohamed A M Siddig, Nagwa M El Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim Hashim, Maowia M. Mukhtar
Molecular Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs among Pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different regions in Sudan
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol April 2018 Vol: 7(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,351 KB)
Eze Onyekachi R and Okparaka Vincent CJ
Causal and Long-Run Relationship between Foreign Capital Inflow and Domestic Savings in Nigeria
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol November 2017 Vol: 6(7): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (305 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Velásquez Serra GC on Google Scholar
Velásquez Serra GC on Pubmed
Figueroa Samaniego SE on Google Scholar
Figueroa Samaniego SE on Pubmed
Llangari Cujilema JL on Google Scholar
Llangari Cujilema JL on Pubmed
Preciado Cañas OE on Google Scholar
Preciado Cañas OE on Pubmed
Chaguaro Feijoo JA on Google Scholar
Chaguaro Feijoo JA on Pubmed
Silva Salas SD on Google Scholar
Silva Salas SD on Pubmed
Echeverría Matute A on Google Scholar
Echeverría Matute A on Pubmed


Viewed 1261
Printed 151
Downloaded 413
Powered By iPortal Works