Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
January 2017 Vol. 6(1), pp. 014-020
Copyright © 2017 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper  

Potential risk of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nasopharyngeal Carriage during Umrah and Hajj Seasons in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Ayman K Johargy1, Aiman M Momenah1, Sami S Ashgar1, Hani S Faidah1, Hamdi M El-Said1*, Atif Asghar2, Ameen Alherabi2,  Ashraf E Sorour1, Ibrahim S Alayed3, Baraa T Melibari3, Rayan A Monshi3 and Omar M Alsaati3

1Medical Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute of the Hajj Research ,Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
3Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author E-mail:; Mobile: 00966551941735

Accepted 19 January, 2017 


Hajj and Umrah poses many health challenges and lead to a higher risk of acquiring and disseminating infectious diseases, as a result of mass gatherings and shared accommodation and air pollution. Nasal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major contributing factor for pneumococcal disease that still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to the detection and evaluate of S. pneumoniae in the nasopharyngeal carriage and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. pneumoniae isolates in different ethnic groups, during Umrah and Hajj Season. A total of 3184 nasal swab were collected from 979/613 Umrah visitors/Pilgrims, swab from each one upon arrival and swab before leaving Saudi Arabia, during the period from March to November 2009 G. Samples were cultured for the presence of S. pneumonia by stander laboratory procedures in the Microbiology research laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University. The carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 0% before performing Umrah and  6.41% after performing Umrah and 80% from isolates after Umrah were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Rifampicin and Meropenem antibiotics. The carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 0.7%  before performing Hajj and1% after performing Hajj and 75% from isolates before Hajj and 66.7% after Hajj were sensitive to the previous antibiotics. This study revealed that ethnic groups carries S. pneumoniae were more after performing Hajj and Umrah than before Hajj and Umrah. Thus, we recommend to repeat this study after few years to evaluate the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae in Umrah visitors and Pilgrims and adding controls from Saudi nationals to any upcoming study in order to compare the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae in Umrah visitors, Pilgrims and Saudi nationals, for designing control strategies for these infectious diseases  during Umrah and Hajj seasons.

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, nasopharyngeal carriage, Hajj and Umrah, ethnic groups, Saudi Arabia.

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Ayman K Johargy on Google Scholar
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Aiman M Momenah on Google Scholar
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Sami S Ashgar on Google Scholar
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Hani S Faidah on Google Scholar
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Hamdi M El-Said on Google Scholar
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Atif Asghar on Google Scholar
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Ashraf E Sorour on Google Scholar
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