Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
January 2018, Vol. 7(1), pp. 028-033
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of Endemic Goitre of Children in Eastern Sudan (Red Sea State) Using Ultrasonography and ELISA

Shazaly Khojaly1,4, Mohamed Yousef1,2, Mohammed Garelnabi1, Mogahid M.A Zidan3, 4*, Auis Bashir1, Mahmoud S Babiker5, Eltag M.I. Madwi6 and Abbas Khalid Abbas Ibrahim3, 4

1Diagnostic radiologic department College of Medical Radiologic science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
2Radiological Science Program, Batterjee Medical College for Science and Technology, Jeddah, KSA
3Radiological Science and Nuclear Medicine College, The National Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan
4Medical Imaging Technology Department, Al-Ghad International College of Applied Medical Science, Abha, KSA
5Taibah University, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of diagnostic radiologic technology, AL Madinah, KSA.
6Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, UAE.

*Corresponding Author  E-mail:,; Mobile: +966-506270174 

Accepted 18 December, 2017


The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located at the base of your neck. It releases hormones that control metabolism—the way your body uses energy. The thyroid gland has an essential role in regulating vital body functions. This study aimed to assess an endemic goiter in school-aged children in Eastern Sudan (Red Sea State) and to estimate the measurement of standard thyroid gland dimensions and thyroid hormones level Using Ultrasonography and ELISA Technique. A total of 100 children (50 males, 50 females) with mean age of 10.96 ±3.4. Ranged from (6-18) year old., this study was conducted done  in the period from May 2017 to August 2017, All the participants undergone thyroid ultrasound and thyroid hormone level test, subjects with history of goiter  thyroid disease were excluded from the study, thyroid measurements (length, width, and depth) were used to estimate thyroid volume using ellipsoid formula. Thyroid hormones (TSH, T3, and T4)  were estimated using Toso full automation. The study revealed that  subjects of the study (17%) of the participants had goiter, four female (4%) and 13 males (13%) with age ranged (6-11 years) with an increase in TSH and T3  and decreased in T4 level. The mean of thyroid volume for normal participants was 5.03± 0.92 mL and for those who had goiter was 5.72 ± 1.77mL.TSH, T3, T4 for normal participants and for those with goiter were (1.83 ± 0.81, 1.4 ± 0.58 UIu/nL), (3.56 ± 0.34, 4.07 ± 0.58 Pg/Nl) and (1.19 ± 0.15, 1.68 ± 0.72 ng/DI) respectively. It concluded that there were positive correlations between the age and the thyroid volume, it increases with the age increase, the Rt. lobe  was more large than the Lt. lobe, the thyroid volume higher in male than female, and this study found the TSH, T3 and T4 decreases with ages in normal  and goiter subject

Keywords: Thyroid gland, TSH, Goiter, Hormone Level



Anele T (2001). “Ultrasound volumetric measurement of normal thyroid in Nigerians,” The West Afr. J. Ultrasound. 2(1): 10–12. View at Google Scholar

Archie, Alexander M (1996). "The thyroid, the parathyroid, the salivary glands and the cervical lymph nodes," in The NICER Year Book 1996, B. Goldberg and H. Petterson, Eds. pp. 399–429, The NICER Institute, Oslo, Norway. View at Google Scholar.

Iko BO (1986). “Grey scale ultrasonography of the thyroid gland, Nigeria,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 38(1): 21–27. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Brown MC, Spencer R (1978). “Thyroid gland volume estimated by use of ultrasound in addition to scintig-raphy,” Acta Radiologica: Oncology, Radiation, Therapy Physics and Biology. 17(4): 337–341. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Bruneton JN, Balu-Maestro C, Marcy PY, Melia P, Mourou MY (1994). “Very high frequency (13 MHz) ultrasonographic examination of the normal neck: detection of normal lymph nodes and thyroid nod-ules,” J. Ultrasound in Med. 13(2): 87–90. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Brunn J, Block U, Ruf G, Bos I, Kunze WP, Scriba PC (1981). “Volumetric analysis of thyroid lobes by real-time ultrasound,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 106 (41): 1338–1340. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Jamesone JL, Weetman AP (2001). “Disorders of the thyroid gland,” in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, E. Braunwald, A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, and J. L. Jameson, Eds., pp. 2060–2061, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 15th edition. View at Google Scholar

Massol J, Pazart L, Aho S, Strauch G, Leclere J, Durieux P (1993). “Management of thyroid nodules: pre-liminary results of a practice survey with 685 general and specialist practitioners,” Annales d'Endocrinolo-gie. 54(4): 220–225,. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Mohamed Yousef, Abdelmoneim Suleiman, Nagi I Ali, Hassan AM, Khalid H Eltom (2012). Characterization of Radioimmunoassay and Scintigraphy as Diagnostic Tools for Goiter in Sudanese Patients, Ozean J. Appl. Sci. 5(2).

Mohamed Yousef, Abdelmoneim Sulieman, Bushra Ahmed, Alsafi Abdella, Khaled Eltom (2011). Local Ref-erence Ranges of Thyroid Volume in Sudanese Normal Subjects Using Ultrasound, SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research. J. Thyroid Res. Article ID 935141, 4 pages

Robbins T, et al (1998). “Thyroid anatomy,” in Otolaryn-gology—Head and Neck Surgery, C. W. Cummings, J. M. Fredrickson, L. A. Harker, C. J. Krause, and D. E. Schuller, Eds, pp. 2445–2449, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 3rd edition,. View at Google Scholar.

Ryan SP, Nicholas NMJ (1994). “The thyroid and parathyroid glands,” in Anatomy for Diagnostic Im-aging, S. P. Ryan and N. M. J. Nicholas, Eds. pp. 35–37. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA,. View at Google Scholar

Schlögl S, Werner E, Lassmann M, et al (2001). “The use of three-dimensional ultrasound for thyroid volumetry,” Thyroid. 11(6): 569–574. View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Shabana W, Peeters E, Verbeek P, Os-teaux MM (2003). “Reducing inter-observer variation in thyroid volume calculation using a new formula and tech-nique,” The Eur. J. Ultrasound. 16(3): 207–210. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus

Tahir A Ahidjo, Yusuph H (2001). “Ultrasonic assess-ment of thyroid gland size in Maiduguri, Nigeria,” The West Afr. J. Ultrasound. 3(1): 26–31. View at Google Scholar

Warwick R, Williams PL (1973). “Endocrinal system: thyroid,” in Gray's Anatomy, Eds., pp. 1373–1375, Longman Group, Edinburgh, UK, 35th edition.

World Health Organization (1997). “Indicators for assessing iodine deficiency disorders and their control through salt iodization,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1994, (Document no. WHO/NUT94.6). “Recommended normative values for thyroid volume in children aged 6–15 years: World Health Organization and International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75: 95–97.

Related Articles

Original Research Articles
Mohammed A. Ali Omer
Assessment of Day’s Methods for Critical Organs Doses Calculation of Breast Cancer Irradiation Compared with TLD
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. January 2018 Vol: 7(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (888 KB)
Mogahid MA Zidan, Ikhlas A Hassan, Abdelrahaman M Elnour, Khalid M Abd Alla, Mohammed Dowlyb, Mohamed Yousef and Wadah M Ali
Extraspinal Incidental Findings on Routine MRI of Cervical Spine
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. September 2017 Vol: 6(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (307 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Shazaly Khojaly on Google Scholar
Shazaly Khojaly on Pubmed
Mohamed Yousef on Google Scholar
Mohamed Yousef on Pubmed
Mohammed Garelnabi on Google Scholar
Mohammed Garelnabi on Pubmed
Mogahid M.A Zidan on Google Scholar
Mogahid M.A Zidan on Pubmed
Auis Bashir on Google Scholar
Auis Bashir on Pubmed
Mahmoud S Babiker on Google Scholar
Mahmoud S Babiker on Pubmed
Eltag M.I. Madwi on Google Scholar
Eltag M.I. Madwi on Pubmed
Abbas Khalid Abbas Ibrahim on Google Scholar
Abbas Khalid Abbas Ibrahim on Pubmed


Viewed 2147
Printed 324
Downloaded 907
Powered By iPortal Works