Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
January 2018 Issue Vol. 7(1), pp. 010-016
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals
Usefulness of echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart failure
Okpara Ihunanya Chinyere
Department of Medicine, P.M.B. 102119, Benue State University Makurdi, Nigeria.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Phone: 08037067040
Accepted 23 January, 2018
Heart failure is a condition with increasing prevalence worldwide and approximately 50% of heart failure patients present with evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This is manifested as low left ventricular ejection fraction and is also called Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinical studies have shown that approximately 40% of patients with congestive heart failure have predominantly diastolic left ventricular dysfunction also called Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Echocardiography is a non-invasive relatively cheap technique well suited to the evaluation of left ventricular function and represents the gold standard for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Doppler echocardiography is a simple, noninvasive and safe technique for assessment of diastolic function. With echocardiography, heart failure resulting from varying aetiology can be conveniently diagnosed with out the disadvantage and detrimental health effects of ionizing radiation.
Keywords: Heart failure, systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, echocardiography.
Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators (1993). Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity on survival in acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Lancet.343: 821-828.
American Heart Association (2005). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics: 2005 update. Dallas, Tex: American Heart Association.
Braunwald E (2008). Heart Disease. A text book of cardiovascular medicine. 8th edition. Saunders. p561.
Colquhoun MC, Waine C, Monaghan MJ, et al (1995). Investigation in general practice of patients with suspected heart failure [editorial]. Heart. 74: 335-336.
European Commission on Radiation protection 118: Referral guidelines for imaging [http//eceuropa.ed/energy/nuclear/radio/protection/publication/doc/118_enpdf]. accessed 23 July 2004
Foale R, Nihoyannopaulos P, McKenna W, et al (1986). Echocardiographic measurements of the normal right ventricle. Br. Heart J. 56:33-44.
Folland ED, Parisi AF, Moynihan PF, et al (1979). Assessment of left ventricular function and volumes by real-time, two-dimensional echocardiography. A comparison of cine-angiographic and radionuclide techniques. Circulation. 60:760-766.
Giannuzzi P, Temporelli PL, Bosimini E, et al (1996). Independent and incremental prognostic value of Doppler-derived mitral deceleration time of early filling in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 28: 383-390.
Gottdiener JS, Van Voorhees L, Gay J, et al (1983). Incidence and embolic potential of left ventricular thrombus in cardiomyopathy: assessment by two-dimensional echocardiography. Am. J. Cardiol. 52: 1281-1285.
Henry WL, DeMaria A, Feigenbaum H, et al (1982). Report of the American Society of Echocardiography committee on nomenclature and standards: identification of myocardial wall segments. American Society of Echocardiography, 1982.
Holen J, Aaslid R, Landmark K et al (1977). Determination of effective orifice area in mitral stenosis from non-invasive ultrasound Doppler data and mitral flow rate. Acta Med. Scand. 201: 83-88.
Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, et al (2005). Line up update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult : a report of the American College of Cardiology/American heart Association Task-force on practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart failure). J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(6): e1-e82.
International Commission on Radiation protection: Radiation and your patient: a guide for medical practitioners. A web module produced by Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. United Kingdom: Pergamon Press; 2001.
Jugdutt BI, Sivaram CA, Worman C (1989). Prospective two-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular thrombus and embolism after acute myocardial infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 13: 554-564.
Klein AL, Burstow DJ, Tajik AJ, et al (1994). Effect of age on left ventricular dimensions and filling dynamics in 117 normal persons. Mayo Clin. Proc. 69: 212-214.
McMurray JM, McDonagh T, Morrison CE, et al (1993). Trends in hospitalisation for heart failure in Scotland. Eur. Heart J. 14 : 1158 – 1162.
Miyatake K, Yamagishi M, Tanaka N, et al (1995). A new method for the evaluation of left ventricular wall motion by color-encoded tissue Doppler imaging: in vitro and in vivo studies. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 25: 717-724.
Nosir YFM, Fioretti PM, Vietter WB, et al (1996). Accurate measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by three-dimensional echocardiography. A comparison with radionuclide angiography. Circulation. 94:460-466.
Oh JK (2007). Echocardiography in heart failure: beyond diagnosis. Eur. J. Echocardiogr. 8(1): 4-14.
Otto CM, Pearlman AS, Comess KA, et al (1986). Determination of the stenotic aortic valve area using Doppler echocardiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 7:509-517.
Peirard LA, De Landshere CM, Berthe C, et al (1990). Identification of viable myocardium by echocardiography during dobutamine infusion in patients with myocardial infarction after thrombolytic therapy: comparison with positron emission tomography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 15:1021-1031.
Perez JE, Waggoner AD, Barzilai B, et al (1992). On-line assessment of left ventricular function by automated boundary detection and ultrasonic backscatter imaging. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19:313-320.
Perrone-Filardi P, Pace L, Prastato M, et al (1995). Dobutamine echocardiography predicts improvement in hypoperfused dysfunctional myocardium after revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease. 91: 2556-2565.
Petersen P, Boysen G, Godtfredsen J, et al (1989). Placebo-controlled, randomised trial of warfarin and aspirin for the prevention of thromboembolic complications in chronic atrial fibrillation: the Copenhagen AFASAK study. Lancet. i: 175-179.
Pfeffer M, Braunwald E, Move L, et al (1992). Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement study. N Engl. J. Med. 327: 669-677.
Picano E (2004). Sustainability of medical imaging. BMJ. 328: 578-580.
Picano E (2005). Economic and biological costs of cardiac imaging. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 3: 13-13.
Rathhold MM (2002). Heart failure – an epidemic of uncertain proportions. N Eng. J. Med. 347 : 1442 – 1444.
Reitsma JB, Mosterd A, de Craen AJM, et al (1996). Increase in hospital admission rates in the Netherlands, 1980 – 1993. Heart. 76: 335-336.
Remme WJ, McMurray JJ, Ranch B, et al (2005). Public awareness of heart failure in Europe : first results from SHAPE. Eur. Heart J. 26: 2413 – 2421.
Ross J (1996). The timing of surgery for severe mitral regurgitation [editorial]. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 1412-1416.
Salustri A, Becker A, van Herwenden L, et al (1996). Three-dimensional echocardiography of normal and pathological mitral valve: a comparison with two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 27: 1502-1510.
Schiller NB, Shah PM, Crawford M, et al (1989). Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography committee on standards, sub-committee on quantitation of two-dimensional echocardiograms. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2: 358-367.
Soufer R, Wohlgelernter D, Vita NA, et al (1985). Intact systolic left ventricular function in clinical congestive heart failure. Am. J. Cardiol. 55: 1032-1036.
Starling MR, Crawford MH, Sorensen SG, et al (1981). Comparative accuracy of apical biplane cross-sectional echocardiography and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography for estimating left ventricular size and performance. Circulation. 63: 1075-1084.
Stewart W, Gunawardena S, Rodkey S, et al (1993). Left ventricular volume calculation using integrated backscatter from echocardiography: comparison with MRI and off-line echo analysis. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 6: 553-563.
Sutherland GR, von Bibra H, Tuchnitz A, et al (1995). Transthoracic detection of regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities using a pervenous contrast agent-a comparative study of Doppler energy and grey scale imaging [abstract]. Br. Heart J. 73(suppl 3):P57.
Swedberg K, Cleland J, Dargie H, et al (2005). Task force for the diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Chronic heart failure : executive summary (update 2005). Eur. Heart J. 26: 1115-1140.
Takastuji H, Mikami T, Urasawa K, et al (1996). A new method for evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function: spatial and temporal analysis of left ventricular filling flow propagation by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 27:365-371.
The SOLVD Investigators (1991). Effects of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and congestive heart failure. N Engl. J. Med. 325: 293-302.
Vlahovic A, Popovic AD (1999). Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function using Doppler echocardiography. Med. Pregl. 52(1-2): 13-18.
Volpi A, De Vita C, Franzioni MG, et al (1993). Determinants of 6-month mortality in survivors of myocardial infarction after thrombolysis. Results of the gruppo Italiano per lo studio della supravivenza nell’infarto miocardico (GISSI-2) data base. Circulation. 88:416-429.
von Bibra H, Tuchnitz A, Firschke C, et al (1995). Doppler tissue imaging of left ventricular myocardium-initial results during pharmacological stress [abstract]. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 25:P57A.
White HD, Norris RM, Brown MA, et al (1987). Left ventricular end-systolic volume as the major determinant of survival after recovery from myocardial infarction. Circulation. 76:44-51.
Yamamoto K, Redfield MM, Nishimura RA (1996). Analysis of left ventricular diastolic function. Heart. 75(suppl 2):27-35.
Zhang Y, Mahye E, Nitter-Hauge S (1985). Non-invasive quantification of the aortic valve area in aortic stenosis by Doppler echocardiography. Eur. Heart J. 6: 992-998.