Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
October 2015 Vol. 4(10), pp. 455-460
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

Prevalence and antibiogram of Pathogenic Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from patients Seeking Medical Care in a Tertiary Hospital in Abakaliki, Nigeria

Iroha Ifeanyichukwu1, Ikeagwu Ifeoma2, Ejikeugwu Chika1*, Nwakaeze Emmanuel1, Eze Egwu2, Alu-OKafor Florence2, Ugbo Emmanuel1, Ikechukwu Moses1 and Nwuzo Agabus1

1Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ejikeugwu_chika@yahoo.com; Phone: +2348097684562

Accepted 10 October 2015

 

Abstrct

Gram-negative bacteria are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that comprises the family Enterobacteriaceae and other non-enteric bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and these organisms are responsible for a plethora of nosocomial and non-nosocomial infections. Antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing at an alarming rate in both the hospital and community settings; and these organisms are responsible for a handful of infections in humans. This study evaluated by standard bacteriological analysis; 541 clinical samples of patients (who attended a tertiary hospital in Abakaliki, Nigeria) including urine, stool, sputum, eye swab, wound swab, high vaginal swab, and urethra swab. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas species, Morganella species, Proteus species, and Providencia species were the Gram-negative pathogens isolated from the clinical samples. However, E. coil and Klebsiella species were the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated. All the Gram-negative bacteria showed 100 % resistance to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ampicillin. Resistance to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid was also common amongst the Gram-negative bacteria. All the Gram-negative bacteria showed 100 % susceptibility to the aminoglycosides, gentamicin and amikacin. Nitrofurantoin was only active against E. coli, Citrobacter species, Providencia species, Morganella species and Klebsiella species. Nevertheless, nitrofurantoin resistance was recorded in Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas species and Proteus species. Conclusively, the high level of antibiotic resistance observed in this study reveal that antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial bacterial pathogens is a worrisome development that warrants continuous surveillance and review of the usage of antimicrobial agents in our hospitals so that development and spread of drug-resistant organism can be effectively contained.   

Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria, Nosocomial infection, Antimicrobial resistance, Hospital patients  

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