Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
November 2015 Vol. 4(11), pp. 477-484
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper 

Cranio-Orbito Zygomatic Normative Measurements in Adult Sudanese: CT Based Study

Maisa Mohammed Elzaki1, Caroline Edward Ayad2*, Hussein Ahmed Hassan2 and Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla2

1Alzaiem Alazhari University, Faculty of Radiology Science and Medical Imaging, P.O. Box 1432 Khartoum North, Sudan
2Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Medical Radiological Science, P.O.Box1908, Khartoum,Sudan Khartoum-Sudan

*Corresponding Author E-mail:; Tel: 0922044764

Accepted 19 November, 2015


The measurements of craniofacial parameters have clinical and anthropologic significance. Local data on Cranio-orbito zygomatic normative measurements reveal the pattern of changes in craniofacial features resulting from gender and age. In the present study, we provide normative data on anthropometric variation within the normal adult Sudanese measurements by using computerized tomography (CT) images and to determine the effects of age and gender on anthropometry. A systematic method was obtained to align head (CT) images for both axial and coronal assessment, and to measure the variable parameters obtained from 110 Sudanese subjects in both genders and in different age groups (≤20≥61years). To quantify the orbits: 4 measurements were collected along both orbits including orbital breadth, height, bi orbital roof and anterior inter orbital distance; 2 for zygomatic bones including bi zygomatic breadth and zygomatic arches length, 2 for cranium counting length and width were also measured. All measurements were taken in (mm). As a result; measurements of the orbita, zygomatic arches and cranium were found to be higher at the age of 51-61 years and showed similar measurements attainment at this age with no significant difference detected at various age intervals. Measurements varied significantly between the genders at p˂0.05. Our study findings may be considered as reference for Sudanese, and the measurements may describe the normal morphological variants of orbits, zygomatic bone and cranium length and breadth for Sudanese. Since the anatomy of the face is of interest to many radiological fields, the radiologists must have knowledge of normal anatomy of cranio-orbito-zygomatic characteristics to determine the presence of abnormality and to help in surgical planning. We trust that the information gained from the present study will be useful to all the medical, radiological and anthropological fields.

Keywords: Orbital anthropology, zygomatic anthropology, gender prediction, CT images

Related Articles

Original Research Article
Alamin Musa Salih, Caroline Edward Ayad and Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla
Characterization of Occipital Condyles in Sudanese using Computerized Tomography
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. December 2014 Vol: 3(12): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (102 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Maisa Mohammed Elzaki on Google Scholar
Maisa Mohammed Elzaki on Pubmed
Caroline Edward Ayad on Google Scholar
Caroline Edward Ayad on Pubmed
Hussein Ahmed Hassan on Google Scholar
Hussein Ahmed Hassan on Pubmed
Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla on Google Scholar
Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla on Pubmed


Viewed 1293
Printed 406
Downloaded 1066
Powered By iPortal Works