Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2315-5159)
November 2016, Vol. 5(11) pp. 269-277
Copyright © 2016 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper 

Malaria in the Amazon River Basin of Ecuador 

Llangarí-Cujilema JL1, Chiluisa-Guacho CV1, Taipe-Oña BI1,  Licuy-Grefa FR1, Silva-Salas SD2, Toral FA3 and Velasquéz-Serra GC4*

1Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud Pública. INSPI. Dr. Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez. Zonal-Tena. Ecuador
2Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador. Coordinación Zonal 2 Salud. Ecuador
3Ministerio de Salud Pública. Ecuador. Centro de Salud Tipo A  Tiputini. Ecuador
4Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud Pública INSPI. Dr. Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez. Prometeo Senescyt. Ecuador

*Corresponding Author E-mail: glenticks@gmail.com Phone: 00593-0983176173

Accepted 29 October, 2016

Abstract

Malaria is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. It is the protozoal disease with greatest impact on the world. It affects more than 100 countries and Ecuador is one of the 21 endemic countries in the Americas, mainly in the Amazon. The aim of the study was to identify clinical and epidemiological factors of risk associated with the diagnosis of febrile patients treated at the Health Center Type A-Tiputini. The investigation corresponds to a descriptive study, field and cross-sectional, conducted during the Epidemiological weeks 1-31 on the banks of the Napo River, Canton Aguarico, Orellana Province in Ecuador during year 2015. Several risk factors related to area of study, such as geo-political distribution, and environmental variables, clinical characteristics of present illness and a history of malaria of patients. The diagnosis is made by examining thick film. A total amount of 123 cases of malaria were counted; (n = 117/123) were symptomatic patients came mainly from Aguarico canon and (n = 6/123) asymptomatic natives of the town of San Vicente. Imported cases (8) came from Peru and (1) of Argentina. It was found as important environmental risk factors for malaria: climate (tropical), increased rainfall (> 6000mm) and average relative humidity (> 80%). Cases increased in March at the expense of P. vivax. Most affected age groups were 5-9 years, 21.13% (15/123) for the male gender. Patients corresponded mostly of students and farmers. Failures in the supply of electricity were observed (provided by the hour), specifically at dawn and dusk, enabling the contact-man interaction. Of all cases 32.52% had a history of malaria; 67.48% showed no background. The most common symptoms that most patients developed included fever (81.3) profuse sweating (48.7) headache (44.7) asthenia (16.2) and chills (8.1). All patients were diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria. Cases with uncomplicated malaria were treated with chloroquine and primaquine. The current study allowed to redefine P. vivax endemic areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, specifically in the communities of Canton Aguarico, factors that interfere with its spread and prevalence.

Keywords: Characteristics, clinical and epidemiological, malaria, anopheles


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