Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
November 2019, Vol. 8(4), pp. 020-027
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3558862



Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Pathophysiology and Update on Treatment

Mostafa Q. Alshamiri

Department of Cardiac Science, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia.

E-mail:; Tel.: +9661504135042; Fax: +966114679472

Accepted 15 November, 2019

The presence of diabetes in HF patients portends worse prognosis than does HF without DM. Heart failure in diabetes mellitus (DM) in the absence of conventional risk factors such as hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and congenital or valvular heart disease, has been defined in the literature as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The question what are the link between DM and DCM? The answer of this question is not well understood. This review will identify the link between diabetes mellitus and DCM, will also explore the possible mechanisms and triggering factors or associations with emphasis upon the implications of new anti-diabetic treatment on preventing development of heart failure in DM. The keywords used in the literature search were heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease in DM, diabetic cardiomyopathy and treatment of diabetes with heart failure. These keywords were synced into midline and google search to acquire literature reviews and structured topics in order to deliver significant understanding of the mechanism and factors contributing to the development of DCM. All heart failure secondary to known etiology such as hypertension, valvuler heart disease, coronary artery disease or cardio-myopathy without diabetes mellitus excluded. This literature review identify  several link between diabetes mellitus and heart failure in the absence of conventional risk factors (DCM), it also explore the possible mechanisms and triggering factors or associations with emphasis upon the implications of new anti-diabetic treatment on preventing development of heart failure in diabetic patients. It also give conception on what remedy can change the course of this disease. DCMhas a distinct substrate in DM patients with HF in the absence of known causes ofheart diseases and its factors. All proven evidence-based medicine for its treatment should be taken into consideration. Uses of new anti-diabetic medication may delay or prevent development of DCM. Further clinical studies and basic science advancement will recognize the context of DCM.

Keywards: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic cardiomyopathy, Heart failure


List of abbreviations 

HF: Heart failure, DM: Diabetes mellitus, DCM: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, CAN: Coronary artery disease, MI: Myocardial infarction, ICM: Idiopathic cardio myopathy, PKC: Protein kinase C, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, FA: Fatty acid, FFA: Free fatty acid, LV: Left ventricular, RAAS: Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System, ACEI: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARBs: Angiotensin receptor blockers, BB: Beta Blocker, TZDs:Thiazolidinediones, DPP-4: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, SGLT: Sodium Glucose-Linked Transporter 



Adams KF, Fonarow GC, Emerman CL, LeJemtel TH, Costanzo MR, Abraham WT, et al (2005). Characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE). Am Heart J. 149:209-16. (PubMed: 15846257)

Aguilar D, Chan W, Bozkurt B, Ramasubbu K, Deswal A (2011). Metformin Use and Mortality in Ambulatory Patients With Diabetes and Heart Failure Clinical Perspective. Circ. Heart Fail. 4:53-58. (PubMed: 20952583)

Airaksinen KJ, Koistinen MJ, Ikäheimo MJ, Huikuri HV, Korhonen U, Pirttiaho H, et al (1989). Augmentation of atrial contribution to left ventricular filling in IDDM subjects as assessed by Doppler echocardiography. Diabetes care. 12:159-161. (PubMed: 2702899)

AlHabib KF, Elasfar AA, Alfaleh H, Kashour T, Hersi A, AlBackr H, et al (2014). Clinical features, management, and short‐and long‐term outcomes of patients with acute decompensated heart failure: phase I results of the HEARTS database. Eur. J. Heart Fail. 16:461-469. (PubMed: 24515441)

Al‐Shafei AI, Wise RG, Gresham GA, Bronns G, Carpenter TA, Hall LD, et al (2002). Non‐invasive magnetic resonance imaging assessment of myocardial changes and the effects of angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic rats. J. Physiol. 538:541-553. (PMCID: PMC2290059)

Amour J, David JS, Vivien B, Coriat P, Riou B (2004). Interaction of halogenated anesthetics with α-and β-adrenoceptor stimulations in diabetic rat myocardium. Anesthesiol. 101:1145-1152. (PubMed: 15505450)

Aneja A, Tang WW, Bansilal S, Garcia MJ, Farkouh ME (2008). Diabetic cardiomyopathy: insights into pathogenesis, diagnostic challenges, and therapeutic options. Am. J. Med. 121:748-57. (PubMed: 18724960)

Bell DS (2003). Heart failure. Diabetes care. 26:2433-4241. (PubMed: 12882875)

Bertoni AG, Hundley WG, Massing MW, Bonds DE, Burke GL, Goff DC (2004). Heart failure prevalence, incidence, and mortality in the elderly with diabetes. Diabetes care. 27:699-703. (PubMed: 14988288)

Bertoni AG, Tsai A, Kasper EK, Brancati FL (2003). Diabetes and idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes care. 26: 2791-2795. (PubMed: 14514581)

Bisognano JD, Weinberger HD, Bohlmeyer TJ, Pende A, Raynolds MV, Sastravaha A, et al (2000). Myocardial-directed overexpression of the human β 1-adrenergic receptor in transgenic mice. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 32:817-830. (PubMed: 10775486)

Boudina S, Abel ED (2007). Diabetic cardiomyopathy revisited. Circulation. 115:3213-3223. (PubMed: 17592090)

Boudina S, Abel ED (2010). Diabetic cardiomyopathy, causes and effects. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 11:31-39. (PubMed: 20180026)

Chen X, Yang L, Zhai SD (2012). Risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients prescribed rosiglitazone or pioglitazone: a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies. Chin. Med. J. (Engl). 125:4301-4306. (PubMed: 23217404)

Chioncel O, Vinereanu D, Datcu M, Ionescu DD, Capalneanu R, Brukner I, et al (2011). The Romanian acute heart failure syndromes (RO-AHFS) registry. Am. Heart J. 162:142-153. (PubMed: 21742101)

Clifton P (2014). Do dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors cause heart failure?.ClinTher. 36:2072-2079. (PubMed: 25453730)

Eguchi K, Boden-Albala B, Jin Z, Rundek T, Sacco RL, Homma S, et al (2008). Association between diabetes mellitus and left ventricular hypertrophy in a multiethnic population. Am. J. Cardiol. 101:1787-1791. (PubMed: 18549860)

Erdmann E, Lechat P, Verkenne P, Wiemann H (2001). Results from post‐hoc analyses of the CIBIS II trial: effect of bisoprolol in high‐risk patient groups with chronic heart failure. Eur. J. Heart Fail. 3:469-479. (PubMed: 11511434)

Eurich DT, Majumdar SR, McAlister FA, Tsuyuki RT, Johnson JA (2005). Improved clinical outcomes associated with metformin in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Diabetes care. 28:2345-2351. (PubMed: 16186261)

Evans JM, Doney AS, AlZadjali MA, Ogston SA, Petrie JR, Morris AD, et al (2010). Effect of metformin on mortality in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Cardiol. 106:1006-1010. (PubMed: 20854965)

Factor SM, Minase T, Cho SA, Fein F, Capasso JM, Sonnenblick EH (1984). Coronary microvascular abnormalities in the hypertensive-diabetic rat. A primary cause of cardiomyopathy?. Am. J. Pathol. 116: 9-20. (PubMed: 6742110)

Falcão-Pires I, Leite-Moreira AF (2012). Diabetic cardiomyopathy: understanding the molecular and cellular basis to progress in diagnosis and treatment. Heart Fail Rev. 17:325-344. (PubMed: 21626163)

Fonarow GC, Abraham WT, Albert NM, Gattis WA, Gheorghiade M, Greenberg B, et al (2004). Organized program to initiate lifesaving treatment in hospitalized patients with heart failure (OPTIMIZE-HF): rationale and design. Am. Heart J. 148:43-51. (PubMed: 15215791)

From AM, Leibson CL, Bursi F, Redfield MM, Weston SA, Jacobsen SJ, et al (2006). Diabetes in heart failure: prevalence and impact on outcome in the population. Am. J. Med. 119:591-9. (PubMed: 16828631)

Frustaci A, Kajstura J, Chimenti C, Jakoniuk I, Leri A, Maseri A, et al (2000). Myocardial cell death in human diabetes. Circ. Res. 87:1123-1132. (PubMed: 11110769)

Green JB, Bethel MA, Armstrong PW, Buse JB, Engel SS, Garg J, et al (2015). Effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J. Med. 373:232-242. (PubMed: 26052984)

Guzik TJ, Mussa S, Gastaldi D, Sadowski J, Ratnatunga C, Pillai R, et al (2002). Mechanisms of increased vascular superoxide production in human diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 105:1656-1662. (PubMed: 11940543)

Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K, Laakso M (1998). Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl. J. Med. 339:229-234. (PubMed: 9673301)

Hardin NJ (1996). The myocardial and vascular pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Coron Artery Dis. 7:99-108. (PubMed: 8813440)

Harikrishnan S, Sanjay G, Anees T, Viswanathan S, Vijayaraghavan G, Bahuleyan CG, et al (2015). Clinical presentation, management, in‐hospital and 90‐day outcomes of heart failure patients in Trivandrum, Kerala, India: the Trivandrum Heart Failure Registry. Eur J Heart Fail. 17:794-800. (PubMed: 26011246)

Jaffe AS, Spadaro JJ, Schechtman K, Roberts R, Geltman EM, Sobel BE (1984). Increased congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction of modest extent in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am. Heart J. 108:31-37. (PubMed: 6731279)

Kanai Y, Lee WS, You G, Brown D, Hediger MA (1994). The human kidney low affinity Na+/glucose cotransporter SGLT2. Delineation of the major renal reabsorptive mechanism for D-glucose. J. Clin. Invest. 93:397-404. (PubMed: 8282810)

Kawasaki D, Kosugi K, Waki H, Yamamoto K, Tsujino T, Masuyama T (2007). Role of Activated Renin-Angiotensin System in Myocardial Fibrosis and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients. Circ. J. 71:524-529.

Kouvaras G, Cokkinos D, Spyropoulo M (1988). Increased mortality of diabetics after acute myocardial infarction attributed to diffusely impaired left ventricular performance as assessed by echocardiography. Jpn Heart J. 29(1):1-9. (PubMed: 3398236)

Koya D, King GL (1998). Protein kinase C activation and the development of diabetic complications. Diabetes. 47:859-866. (PubMed: 9604860)

Lindström J, Tuomilehto J (2003). The diabetes risk score. Diabetes care. 26:725-731. (PubMed: 12610029)

Malmberg K, Yusuf S, Gerstein HC, Brown J, Zhao F, Hunt D, et al (2000). Impact of diabetes on long-term prognosis in patients with unstable angina and non–Q-wave myocardial infarction. Circulation. 102:1014-1019. (PubMed: 10961966)

Mandavia CH, Pulakat L, DeMarco V, Sowers JR (2012). Over-nutrition and metabolic cardiomyopathy. Metabolism. 61:1205-1210. (PubMed: 22465089)

Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JF, Nauck MA, et al (2016). Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J. Med. 375:311-322. (PubMed: 27295427)

McGavock JM, Lingvay I, Zib I, Tillery T, Salas N, Unger R, et al (2007). Cardiac steatosis in diabetes mellitus: a 1H-magnetic reso­nance spectroscopy study. Circulation. 116:1170–1175. (PubMed: 17698735)

McGavock JM, Victor RG, Unger RH, Szczepaniak LS (2006). Adiposity of the heart, revisited. Ann. Intern. Med. 144:517–524. (PubMed: 16585666)

Nahser PJ, Brown RE, Oskarsson H, Winniford MD, Rossen JD (1995). Maximal coronary flow reserve and metabolic coronary vasodilation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 91:635-640. (PubMed: 7828287)

Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, Erondu N, et al (2017). Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl. J. Med. 377:644-657. (PubMed: 28605608)

Nieminen MS, Brutsaert D, Dickstein K, Drexler H, Follath F, Harjola VP, et al (2006). EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population. Eur Heart J. 27:2725-2736. (PubMed: 17000631)

Nishikawa T, Edelstein D, Du XL, Yamagishi SI, Matsumura T, Kaneda Y, et al (2000). Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic damage. Nature. 404:787-790. (PubMed: 10783895)

Nissen SE, Wolski K (2007). Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl. J. Med. 2007:2457-2471. (PubMed: 17517853)

Orea-Tejeda A, Colín-Ramírez E, Castillo-Martínez L, Asensio-Lafuente E, Corzo-León D, González-Toledo R, et al (2007). Aldosterone receptor antagonists induce favorable cardiac remodeling in diastolic heart failure patients. Rev Invest Clin. 59:103-107. (PubMed: 17633796)

Owan TE, Hodge DO, Herges RM, Jacobsen SJ, Roger VL, Redfield MM (2006). Trends in prevalence and outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl. J. Med. 355:251-259. (PubMed: 16855265)

Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F, Neaton J, Martinez F, Roniker B, et al (2003). Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl. J. Med. 348:1309-1321. (PubMed: 12668699)

Poston L, Taylor PD (1995). Endothelium-mediated vascular function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. ClinSci (Lond). 88:245-255. (PubMed: 7736692)

Psaty BM, Furberg CD (2007). Rosiglitazone and cardiovascular risk. N Engl. J. Med. 356:2522-2524. (PubMed: 17517854)

Rodrigues B, Cam MC, McNeill JH (1998). Metabolic disturbances in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mol. Cell Biochem. 180:53-37. (PubMed: 9546630)

Roumie CL, Hung AM, Greevy RA, Grijalva CG, Liu X, Murff HJ, et al (2012). Comparative Effectiveness of Sulfonylurea and Metformin Monotherapy on Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes MellitusA Cohort Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 157:601-610. (PubMed: 23128859)

Rubler S, Dlugash J, Yuceoglu YZ, Kumral T, Branwood AW, Grishman A (1972). New type of cardiomyopathy associated with diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Am. J. Cardiol. 30:595-602. (PubMed: 4263660)

Ryden L, Armstrong PW, Cleland JG, Horowitz JD, Massie BM, Packer M, et al (2000). Efficacy and safety of high-dose lisinopril in chronic heart failure patients at high cardiovascular risk, including those with diabetes mellitus. Results from the ATLAS trial. Eur. Heart J. 21:1967-1978. (PubMed: 11071803)

Sato N, Kajimoto K, Asai K, Mizuno M, Minami Y, Nagashima M, et al (2010). Acute decompensated heart failure syndromes (ATTEND) registry. A prospective observational multicenter cohort study: rationale, design, and preliminary data. Am. heart J. 159:949-955. (PubMed: 20569705)

Scirica BM, Bhatt DL, Braunwald E, Steg PG, Davidson J, Hirshberg B, et al (2013). Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl. J. Med. 369:1317-1326. (PubMed: 23992601)

Scognamiglio R, Avogaro A, Casara D, Crepaldi C, Marin M, Palisi M, et al (1998). Myocardial dysfunction and adrenergic cardiac innervation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 31:404-412. (PubMed: 9462586)

Scognamiglio R, Avogaro A, Casara D, Crepaldi C, Marin M, Palisi M, et al (1998). Myocardial dysfunction and adrenergic cardiac innervation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 31:404-12. (PubMed: 9462586)

Shehadeh A, Regan TJ (1995). Cardiac consequences of diabetes mellitus. Clin. Cardiol. 18:301-5. (PubMed: 7664503)

Shindler DM, Kostis JB, Yusuf S, Quinones MA, Pitt B, Stewart D, et al (1996). Diabetes mellitus, a predictor of morbidity and mortality in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Trials and Registry. Am. J. Cardiol. 77:1017-1020. (PubMed: 8644628)

Stewart S, MacIntyre K, Hole DJ, Capewell S, McMurray JJ (2001). More ‘malignant’ than cancer? Five‐year survival following a first admission for heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 3: 315-22. (PubMed: 11378002)

Sulaiman K, Panduranga P, Al‐Zakwani I, Alsheikh‐Ali AA, AlHabib KF, Al‐Suwaidi J, et al (2015). Clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of acute heart failure patients: observations from the Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE). Eur J Heart Fail. 17:374-384. (PubMed: 25739882)

Tashko G (2017). Metformin and CVD prevention. Curr. Res. Diabetes Obes J. 3. CRDOJ.MS.ID.555615

Tavazzi L, Maggioni AP, Lucci D, Cacciatore G, Ansalone G, Oliva F, et al (2006). Nationwide survey on acute heart failure in cardiology ward services in Italy. Eur. Heart J. 27:1207-1215. (PubMed: 16603579)

Tesfamariam B, Brown ML, Cohen RA (1991). Elevated glucose impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation by activating protein kinase C. J. Clin. Invest. 87:1643-1648. (PubMed: 2022734)

Tu JV, Nardi L, Fang J, Liu J, Khalid L, Johansen H, et al (2009). National trends in rates of death and hospital admissions related to acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke, 1994–2004. CMAJ. 180:E118-25. (PubMed: 19546444)             

Udell JA, Cavender MA, Bhatt DL, Chatterjee S, Farkouh ME, Scirica BM (2015). Glucose-lowering drugs or strategies and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with or at risk for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 3:356-366. (PubMed: 25791290)

Van Hoeven KH, Factor SM (1989). Diabetic heart disease—part II: the clinical and pathological spectrum. Clin. Cardiol. 12:667-671.

Vinik AI, Ziegler D (2007). Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation. 115:387-397. (PubMed: 23550085)

Wang CC, Chang HY, Yin WH, Wu YW, Chu PH, Wu CC, et al (2016). TSOC-HFrEF registry: a registry of hospitalized patients with decompensated systolic heart failure: description of population and management. Acta Cardiol. Sin. 32:400-11. (PubMed: 27471353)

White WB, Cannon CP, Heller SR, Nissen SE, Bergenstal RM, Bakris GL, et al (2013). Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J. Med. 369:1327-35. (PubMed: 23992602)

Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE, Drazner MH, et al (2013) ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 128:1810-52. (PubMed: 23741057)

Youn YJ, Yoo BS, Lee JW, Kim JY, Han SW, Jeon ES, et al (2012). Treatment performance measures affect clinical outcomes in patients with acute systolic heart failure. Circ J. 76:1151-1158. (PubMed: 22343195)

Young ME, McNulty P, Taegtmeyer H (2002). Adaptation and maladaptation of the heart in diabetes: Part II. Circulation. 105:1861-1870. (PubMed: 11956132)

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ôunpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al (2004). Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 364:937-952. (PubMed: 15364185)

Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, Swedberg K, Shi H, et al (2011). Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl. J. Med. 364:11-21. (PubMed: 21073363)

Zhou X, Ma L, Habibi J, Whaley-Connell A, Hayden MR, Tilmon RD, et al (2010). Nebivolol improves diastolic dysfunction and myocardial remodeling through reductions in oxidative stress in the Zucker obese rat. Hypertension. 55: 880-888. (PubMed: 20176997)

Zhou YT, Grayburn P, Karim A, Shimabukuro M, Higa M, Baetens D, et al (2000). Lipotoxic heart disease in obese rats: implications for human obesity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 97:1784-1789. (PubMed: 10677535)

Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, et al (2015). Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl. J. Med. 373:2117-2128. (PubMed: 26378978)

Zoneraich S, Mollura JL (1993). Diabetes and the heart: state of the art in the 1990s. Can. J. Cardiol. 9:293-299. (PubMed: 8513422)

Related Articles

Original Research Articles
Dina El-Kahky, Magdy Attia, Saadia M Easa, Nemat M. Awad and Eman A. Helmy
Biosynthesized of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Aspergillus terreus and their application as antitumor and antimicrobial activity
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. March 2019 Vol: 8(3): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,543 KB)
Nadia Mahmoud Mohamed Al Rouby and Raeesa Abdel Tawab Mohamed
Reversibility of Diabetic Cardiac Changes in Albino Rats by Insulin Glargine Treatment
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. April 2015 Vol: 4(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (2,320 KB)
Case Report
Lopez Goerne T, Arevalo A, Ramirez P and Larraza P
Copper nanoparticles as treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: A case report
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. October 2017 Vol: 6(10): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (960 KB)
Original Research Article
Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani
Solid state fermentation using agro industrial residues for alpha amylase production by an actinomycete isolate from red sea soil
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. June 2018 Vol: 7(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (458 KB)
Systematic Review
Masoud Mohammadnezhad, Nasser Salem Alqahtani, Mosese V Salusalu and Adam Konrote
Prevalence and determinant factors of overweight and obesity among Pacific people: A systematic review study
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. June 2017 Vol: 6(6): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (198 KB)
Original Research Article
Afaf S. Altalhi; Aziza M. Hassan; Shatha Dhaifallah Al-Harthi and Fatima Sulaiman Al-harbi
Wild Olive Leaf Extracts Up regulate Insulin-signaling Gene Expression in Diabetic mice
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. April 2018 Vol: 7(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (281 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Mostafa Q Alshamiri on Google Scholar
Mostafa Q Alshamiri on Pubmed


Viewed 1894
Printed 228
Downloaded 739
Powered By iPortal Works