Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
December 2018 Special Issue, Vol. 7(10), pp. 207-213
Copyright © 2018 Global Advanced Research Journals


Systematic review

Genetic regulators of Achilles tendon pathogenesis and outcomes

Tabinda Hasan1* and Kavitha Ganesh2

1Assistant professor of anatomy, College of medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, KSA.
2Professor of anatomy, College of medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, KSA.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:; Phone: +966560211751

Accepted 03 December, 2018


Achilles tendon conditions are common among the young owing to overuse injuries and the post middle aged due to misuse degenerative changes. Achilles-tendoninopathy does not occur in isolation (merely confined to morbidity, pain, restricted movement). Intertwined factors co-exist in form of psychological discomfort, time, productivity loss, adverse life-quality and care giving/financial issues. Since Achilles tendon conditions are common occurrence in orthopedic trauma and rehabilitation centers, this poses logistic burden on health care, insurance systems, work loss days. It has been observed that Achilles tendon conditions are not evenly distributed in the population. It aim to correlate demographic/geographic variations with genetic predispositions through comprehensively analyzing population based genome wide assays and gene mapping studies. This review aims to emphasize genetic aspects of Achilles tendinopathy and provide an evidence based understanding of factors determining vulnerability, progress, prognosis of tendonopathy at the molecular level. A literature search during (January to April 2018) using: NHS, TRIP database, Cochraine library, PubMed, MedLine, Embase, CINHAL, Global health, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Clinical Queries using the following key words: (Ankle, Sports, Achilles tendon OR Tendo calcaneus OR Tendinopathy OR tendinitis OR tendonitis OR tendon rupture) and Genetic role in Achilles tendinopathy prevalence OR incidence OR epidemiology OR etiology. The search returned 1500 articles (reviews, meta-analysis, case control, prospective cohort, cross sectional studies, case studies), of which 121 were included based on best match of the pre-set inclusion criteria. Studies confirm that genes do play a definite role in the development, progress and prognosis of Achilles-tendinopathy. Race, ethnicity, geographic zones; all interplay in determining outcomes of this condition. Customized epigenetics do have a role in futuristic ankle and foot-health care clinics. It also welcomes an open questionin 21st century modern health care as to ‘whether it is time to incorporate gene mapping’ fortimely identifying and monitoring intervention for susceptible individuals.

Keywords: Achilles tendinopathy, Genetic regulators and Tendocalcaneus



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