Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
February 2013 Vol. 2(2), pp. 047-054
Copyright © 2013 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Full Length Research Paper

Ischemic heart disease in chronic arsenic exposure: A case control study in West Bengal

Debendranath Guha Mazumder1*, Kunal K Majumdar2, Ishani Kar-Purkayastha3, Aloke Ghose4, Goutam Mistry5, Chandan Saha6, Ashoke Nandy7 and Arabinda Das8

1Director, DNGM Research Foundation, Kolkata-700 053,India, Formerly, Professor and Head, Dept of Medicine and Gastroenterology, Instt.of Post Graduate Medical  Education And Research, Kolkata.
2Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, KPC Medical College & Hospital, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700 032, India
3Visiting Research Associate (Clinical Toxicology), DNGM Research Foundation, Kolkata, India.
4,5Research Associate, DNGM Research Foundation, Kolkata- 700 053, India
6Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata-700 073, India.
7Chemist, Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata-700 073, India.
8Asst.Professor, Dept of Statistics, Acharya Prafulla Ch. College, Kolkata-700131, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: guhamazumder@yahoo.com; Phone: 033-2396-7493; Fax: 033-28380478

Accepted 28 February, 2013

Abstract

Reports of cardiovascular complications due to chronic arsenic exposure are scanty from the Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. This study from West Bengal, India assesses the likelihood of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in individuals resident in an area of high groundwater contamination with arsenic (Nadia district) compared to those from a non-contaminated area (Hoogly district). Two hundred and eight study participants (Group 1) were recruited from a cross-sectional study in six villages in the Nadia district and 100 controls (Group 2) from a village in the Hoogly district. The two groups were evenly matched in regard to age and sex. History taking and clinical examination and electrocardiography were done in each participant. Water samples from current and previous drinking water sources and hair and urine samples from each participant were collected for estimation of arsenic. The present study showed evidence of increased association of IHD in individuals resident in arsenic endemic region compared to those from a non-endemic region with increased odds ratio for IHD (Adjusted Odds Ratio, OR 2.14 (95%CI=(1.03-4.15))  in Group- 1 participants compared to Group- 2. Within Group 1, there was no difference in prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes between those with and without skin lesion. There was a dose-effect relationship seen with increasing arsenic level in hair and IHD (Unadjusted OR. 4.31 (95%CI=(1.01-18.58)) in participants living in arsenic endemic region. The findings reported here support an association between arsenic exposure and IHD. More work is needed to characterize the link further.

Keywords: Arsenic and ischemic heart disease. Arsenic in hair, Arsenic in heart disease, Arsenic in unexposed population.

 

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