Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (GARJMMS) ISSN: 2315-5159
May 2015 Vol. 4(5), pp. 218-230
Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

Review

Immunology and immunopathology of African Trypanosomiasis

D. Musa, A.O. Fajinmi, R. Abdullahi, T. Tese, A. E. Irhue

Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research PMB 2077, Kaduna, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: musakaus@yahoo.com

Accepted 28 May, 2015

Abstract

Major modifications of immune system have been observed in Human African Trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein, VSG) is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterized. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th1-cellsubset. A response of γ δ and CD8T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of auto antibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis) and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins etc.). Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-α, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-α is also involved in cachexia. IFN-γ acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation, including arginase induction. L-ornithine produced by host arginase is essential to parasite growth. All these data reflect the deep insight into the immune system realized by trypanosome sand might suggest interference therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: Trypanosome, Human African trypanosomiasis, immunology, macrophage, lymphocytes, nitricoxide, cytokine, auto antibodies.

Related Articles


Original Research Articles
Ifeanyichukwu MO, Esan, AJ.
Evaluation of haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red cell indices in pre- and post-anti-malaria drug treatment in plasmodium falciparum malaria infected and control individuals
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. March 2014 Vol: 3(2): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (181 KB)
Tajjiou, A. Benjouad M. Oukessou
Pharmacokinetics of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide after oral administration to farm chicken
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. August 2019 Vol: 8(7): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (523 KB)
Saly M.E. Toubar, Abdllah. A. Elbialy and Mahmoud. M.M. Zaky
Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Domestic Dairy Products in Port Said Governorate, Egypt.
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. November 2017 Vol: 6(7): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (1,819 KB)
Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani
Solid state fermentation using agro industrial residues for alpha amylase production by an actinomycete isolate from red sea soil
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. June 2018 Vol: 7(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (458 KB)
Nour Eldaim Elnoman Elbadawi and Waleed Ibrahim
Effect of Quinine therapy on Liver Function Parameters in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gezira state
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. March 2017 Vol: 6(3): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (118 KB)
Baba Usman Ahmadu, Rabasa Adamu Ibrahim, Bukbuk David, Musa Alhaji Bukar, Bashir Faruk, Chama Rejoice, Abdulrahim Halima and Fate Bala Zira
Does placental malaria infection impairs the passage of measles antibodies from mothers to their newborn infants?
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci. January 2013 Vol: 2(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (163 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

D Musa on Google Scholar
D Musa on Pubmed
AO Fajinmi on Google Scholar
AO Fajinmi on Pubmed
R Abdullahi on Google Scholar
R Abdullahi on Pubmed
T Tese on Google Scholar
T Tese on Pubmed
AE Irhue on Google Scholar
AE Irhue on Pubmed

Statistics

Viewed 4619
Printed 641
Downloaded 2345
Powered By iPortal Works