Global Advanced Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences (GARJPAS)

August 2014 Vol. 3(3), pp. 035-050
Copyright © 2014 Global Advanced Research Journals


Original Research Paper

Effect of Urbanization and Industrialization on Waters of the Benin River- Ethiope River System around Sapele, Nigeria

Samuel Omorovie Akporido and Helen Ejiro Kadiri

Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta state, Nigeria

Corresponding author Email:

Accepted 13 August, 2014


Factors of industrialization and Urbanization in degrading the environment in the Niger Delta region are often undermined by researchers. Grab water samples were collected from nine sampling station in the study area and composite samples of effluents from effluents conveying conduits of two industries, all on the Benin River- Ethiope River system around sapele for two dry and two rainy seasons. The physicochemical parameters of water, oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were analyzed by various standard methods and the heavy metals were determined by flame absorption spectrometry after appropriate digestion method. Important results for water samples as averages for the study area are, pH (5.41±0.35), DO (3.1±1.3 mg/L), BOD5 (9.9±2.9 mg/L), COD (65±21 mg/L), O&G (910±1100 µg/L), TPH (856±1100 µg/L), Ni (7.7±7.0 µg/L), Cu (1.2±1.8 µg/L), Cr (16±25 µg/L), Zn (31±39 µg/L), Pb 27±26 µg/L), Cd (4.9±4.1 µg/L) and Mn (65±14 µg/L). The two effluents were found to have capabilities to pollute any receiving water body. The average values of some of the parameters in water exceeded national and international guideline values for drinking water and corresponding values in the control area. All the sampling station waters were r classified as either “slightly polluted” or “polluted”. The water of the Benin River- Ethiope River system is polluted for the purpose of drinking and needs to undergo rigorous treatment before it can be used for drinking purpose. 

Keywords: Factors of Industrialization and Urbanization; Niger Delta region; Sapele; Benin River-Ethiope River System; Physicochemical parameters of water, heavy metals; oil; total petroleum hydrocarbons.



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