Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116
June 2019 Vol. 8(4): pp. 058-062
Copyright © 2019 Global Advanced Research Journals




The Nutritional Values of Microbial Live Feeds and Their Applications in Fish Farming

Onianwah, I. F1.; EZE, V. C2.; Nwaugo, V. C3.; Chikezie-Abba, R.O4.

Dept of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State. Nigeria.


Accepted 19 April, 2019



Microorganisms are good sources of nutrients in fish farming. They provide essential amino acids, protein and polysaccharides need by fish and other aquaculture species. They include bacteria, yeasts, fungi and algae. The quality of aquaculture water determines the productivity of the aquaculture and influence the microbial diversity of the aquatic system. The beneficial microbes can be feed directly as live feeds or supplemented with aquaculture feeds. In addition to rich sources protein and carbohydrates, they provide organic acids, fatty acids, growth promoting factors and some extracellular enzymes required for food digestion in the intestinal tract of fish and other aquaculture species. Environmental factors and the nutritional needs of the aquaculture determine the suitability of microbes as live feed. Viable micro-organisms are added directly to the feed or by inoculating the culture water or could be sprayed or top-dressed into basal diets. The ability of some microorganisms to mutate into pathogens, non acceptance of GMOs and over production of antimicrobial substances by some species are some of the associated problems. Despite these shortcomings, the use of beneficial microorganisms has facilitated the development of aquaculture worldwide.

Keywords:  Live Feeds, Microorganisms, Polysaccharides, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids Extracellular Enzyme, Growth Factors, Supplements.





Arellano CF, Olmos SJ (2002). Thermostable a-1,4- and a-1–6-glucosidase enzymes from  Bacillus spp. isolated from a marine environment. World J Microb Biot 18: 791-795.

Brown MR, Jeffrey SW, Volkman JK, Dunstan GA (1997). Nutritional properties of microalgae for mariculture. Aquaculture, 151: 315-331.

Brown MR, Miller KA (1992). The ascorbic acid content of eleven species of microalgae used in mariculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 4: 205-215.

Colt JE, Armstrong DA (1981). Nitrogen toxicity to crustaceans, fish and mollusks. Proceedings of the bio-engineering symposium for fish culture. Fish culture section of the American fisheries society (FCS Publ. 1): 34-47.

Das P, Mandal S,  Khan A, Manna SK, And Ghosh K (2014). Distribution of extracellular enzyme producing bacteria in the digestive tracts of four brackish water fish species. Turkish           Journal of Zoology. Vol. 38: 79-88. doi:10.3906/zoo-1205-3

Eze VC, Ogbaran IO (2010). Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterizes of fish            pond       water in Ughelli Delta State, Nigeria. Intl. J. Current Res. (8) 082 – 087.

FAO (2012). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy

German DP, Horn MH, Gawlicka A (2004) Digestive enzyme activities in herbivorous and =carnivorous prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae): ontogenetic, dietary, and     phylogenetic effects. Physiol Biochem Zool 77: 789-804.

Golteman HL, Kouwe FA (1980). Chemical Budgets and Nutrients Pathways. In: E. D.                 Le Cren and R. H. Lowe – Mc – Connel (Eds). The Functioning of Freshwater Ecosystems, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge International Biological Programme 2285 – 140.

Hirata H, Murata O, Yamada S, Ishitani H, Wachi M (1998). Probiotic culture of the rotifer BrachionusplicatilisHydrobiologia, 387/388: 495-498. 

Huct M (1986). Textbook of fish culture 2nd Edn., Fish News Book Ltd., England. Vide Study on the physicochemical properties of water of Mouri River, Khulna Bangladesh, Pak. J.      Biol.Sci.,10(5), 710-717.

Liu L, Liu Y, Shin HD, Chen RR, Wang NS (2013). Developing Bacillus spp. as a cell factory     for production of microbial enzymes and industrially important biochemicals in the context of systems and synthetic biology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97: 6113-6127.

Maruyama I, Nakao T, Shigeno I, Ando Y, Hirayama K (1997). Application of unicellular             algae Chlorella vulgaris for the mass culture of marine rotifer BrachionusHydrobiologia, 358:133-138.

Ochoa-Solano J, Olmos-Soto J (2006). The functional property of Bacillus for shrimp feeds. Food Microbiol 23: 519-525.

Olmos SJ, Paniagua-Michel J, Lopez L, Ochoa SL (2014). Functional feeds in aquaculture. S.-K.              Kim (Ed.), Handbook of Marine Biotechnology. NY: Springer,ISBN: 978-3-642-53970-1, 1800

Onianwah IF, Stanley HO, Oyakhire MO (2018). Microorganisms in Aquaculture         Development. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol, (ISSN: 2315-5116) Vol. 7(8) pp. 127-131,

Panigrahi A, Azad IS (2007). Microbial intervention for better fish health in aquaculture: the Indian scenario. Fish Physiol Biochem. 33:429-440.

Robertson PAW, O-Dowd C, Burrells C, Williams P, Austin B (2000). Use of Carnobacteriumsp. as a probiotic for Atlantic salmon (SalmosalarL.) and rainbow trout          (Oncorhynchusmykiss,Walbaum). Aquaculture 185, 235-243. 

Rosas C, Cuzon G, Taboada G (2001). Effect of dietary protein and energy levels on growth, oxygen consumption, haemolymph and digestive gland carbohydrates, nitrogen excretion and osmotic pressure of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) and L. setiferus (Linne) juveniles (Crustacea,                 Decapoda; Penaeidae). Aquac Res 32: 531-547.

Sargent JR, McEvoy LA, Bell JG (1997). Requirements, presentation and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine fish larval feeds. Aquaculture, 155: 117-127.

Schneider O, Sereti V, Eding EH, Verreth JAJ (2005). Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. Aquacult. Eng. 32, 379–401.

Sikoki FD, Veen JV (2004). Aspect of Water Quality and Potential for Fish Production of Shiroro Reservoir, Nigeria Liv. Sys. Dev. 2:7.

Solomon W, Olatunde GO, Matur BM (2013). Some Physicochemical Parameters of   Selected Fish Ponds in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils, Federal Capital Territory, NigeriaGlo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 2 (1) 017 – 022.

WHO (2006). World Health Organization. International Standards for drinking water, 3rd Edn. WHO, Geneva.pp. 148.


Related Articles

Case Report
Ebru Yılmaz, Kadriye Özdemir, Cemaliye Basaran, Erkin Serdaroglu
Just from innocent omega 3 supplementation to nephrocalsinosis
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol March 2015 Vol: 4(3): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (93 KB)
Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez, Mayra Diaz-Ramirez, Alan Javier Hernández-Álvarez, Felipe García-Ochoa, Adriana Villanueva-Carvajal, Liliana León-López, Alejandra L. San Martín-Azocar
Bio surfactants produced by enterobacterial
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol October 2015 Vol: 4(9): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (244 KB)
Original Research Articles
Zohri, A. A and Marwa Abdel-Kareem, M
Four strains of yeasts: as effective biocontrol agents against both growth and mycotoxins formation by selected 11 toxigenic fungi
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol December 2018 Vol: 7(8): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (296 KB)
Saleh A S AL-Abdulhadi
Spotlight into some Abnormalities of Human Chromosome in Saudi Arabia
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol January 2018 Vol: 7(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (257 KB)
Amal Elsayed Edriss, Zuhair Alfadil Alabjar and Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti
Phytochemical screening of important secondary metabolites in some extracts of two Sudanese plants
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol November 2012 Vol: 1(8): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (145 KB)
Sobhy A. El Sohaimy, Gamal M. Hamad, Sameh E. Mohamed, Mohamed H. Amar and Rashad R. Al-Hindi
Biochemical and functional properties of Moringa oleifera leaves and their potential as a functional food
Glo. Adv. Res. J. Microbiol April 2015 Vol: 4(4): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (511 KB)

Current Issue

Viewing Options

View Full Article - PDF
Download Full Article - PDF

Search for Articles

Onianwah on Google Scholar
Onianwah on Pubmed
I. F; EZE on Google Scholar
I. F; EZE on Pubmed
V. C; Nwaugo on Google Scholar
V. C; Nwaugo on Pubmed
V. C; Chikezie-Abba on Google Scholar
V. C; Chikezie-Abba on Pubmed
R.O on Google Scholar
R.O on Pubmed


Viewed 1179
Printed 140
Downloaded 504
Powered By iPortal Works